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(German translation below)
Judging from their titles, many instructions in the Collected Works of Jigten Sumgön have been granted to a particular person. The recipient of the present instruction – Geshe Ladrangpa – is otherwise unknown. However, his title “Geshe” at least reveals that he was an educated student who had probably received his title in one of the training centers that already existed at that time, such as Sangphu (founded in 1074), Bodong, Sakya, Zhalu, and so on.

The core of this mahāmudrā instruction is once again the Fivefold Path with (1) bodhicitta, (2) the practice of one’s personal deity, (3) guru yoga, (4) mahāmudrā, and (5) dedication. What is special about this instruction is that the section on mahāmudrā practice is highlighted by its length and is quite tantric in nature. This practice instruction is an instruction for a secluded retreat. It is explicitly mentioned twice here that one should practice compassion for all those who harm one, since from this arises a compassion that is not merely feigned. The two practices of the deity and guru yoga, which are the second and third limbs of the Fivefold Path of Mahāmudrā, are mentioned only briefly at first, and the main focus of this instruction is mahāmudrā practice.

However, in the mahāmudrā instruction that follows, the two previous limbs of yidam practice and guru yoga are clarified once again. After all, one practices mahāmudrā after visualizing oneself as the deity and, although it is not explicitly mentioned here, one also visualizes the guru in one’s heart. In many yidam deity practice texts it is said that one should practice at certain external tantric pilgrimage sites, each of which is associated with places on oneʼs own body and with certain stages of the bodhisattvas, and so on. However, since the vīras, herukas, and ḍākinīs who reside at these places have all originated from the Vārāhī family, one should, according to Jigten Sumgön, focus primarily on practicing Heruka and Vajravārāhī in a retreat.

What is it about all the outer pilgrimage sites and their inhabitants? The first Chungtsang Rinpoche, Rigdzin Chökyidragpa, in his History of the Cakrasamvara Tantra, describes how at the beginning of kaliyuga, the age of discord, some gandharvas, yakṣas, rākṣasas, nāgās, asuras, kinnaras, and ḍākinīs wanted to dominate the three realms of existence. They therefore invited the fearsome Maheśvara and his consort Kālaratri. Maheśvara then emanated 24 lingams to 24 places and called these beings to hold sacrificial festivals at these places. Therefore, sex, human flesh, blood, etc. were offered at these places to please Maheśvara. Thereupon, innumerable Buddhas came and emanated innumerable deities who manifested samādhis and maṇḍalas, by which innumerable corrupt and malignant beings were liberated from Maheśvaraʼs retinue. Eventually Cakrasamvara and Vajravārāhī manifested, subdued Maheśvara and Kālaratri, and made them their disciples (they also eventually became Buddhas). The deities of Cakrasamvara’s maṇḍala eventually subjugated all the gandharvas, yakṣas, rākṣasas, nāgās, asuras, kinnaras and ḍākinīs. Thus, all these places where previously the demons celebrated perverted sacrificial festivals became tantric pilgrimage sites of Buddhism.

However, as Jigten Sumgön teaches here, in a retreat it is sufficient to practice Heruka and Vajravārāhī, for all the deities of the various pilgrimage sites actually emerged from Varāhī. Then “there is no doubt that the vicious vīras and ḍākinīs will be destroyed by wrath.” It is therefore important to perceive all the deities of the maṇḍalas exclusively as Heruka and Vārāhī, that is, all the vīras are the Heruka, and the 37 ḍākinīs are the Vārāhī. Thus, in practice, one accomplishes the subjugation of the malicious Maheśvaras and his consort Kālaratri. In fact, the first torma to be offered after the blessing of the nectar goes to these gandharvas, yakṣas, rākṣasas, nāgās, asuras, kinnaras and ḍākinīs, who were formerly of Maheśvara’s retinue and are now bound to Cakrasamvaras maṇḍala.

The practice lineage of the Cakrasamvara Tantra has been transmitted in such a way that all members of the lineage have attained complete realization and therefore each bless their disciples “with the boundless ocean of the qualities of Heruka and of the Yogini.” This blessing is transmitted through the lineage of gurus alone. Therefore, one should “practice day and night without interrupting one’s efforts!” This uninterrupted practice and passionate devotion to the guru brings about the blessing transmission. “This is the vital point of the ultimate mahāmudrā!”

Then follows in the text the profound instruction on the actual practice of mahāmudrā as Jigten Sumgön had received it from Phagmodrupa, and the dedication of the merit.

I would like to thank Khenchen Nyima Gyaltsen for his advice and Katrin Querl, Yeshe Metok and Sonam Spitz for their support in translating this text. This perfect teamwork is always a great pleasure!

Translation

Summary of the Key Points of the Unsurpassed Vehicle for the Great Geshe Ladrangpa
[Homage]
I bow with the crown of my head to the lotus feet
of the peerless, precious guru
who is the essence of the body, speech, and mind
of all the Buddhas of the three times.

[Foundation of All Practice: The Fivefold Path]
I heard this guru say:
“Wholesome in the beginning, middle and end
is what has been taught by the Buddhas of the past,
what will be taught by the Buddhas of the future,
and what the perfect Buddha who appeared in the present
has taught over and over again.♦ 1
The key points are (1) the resolve to awaken, (2) [practicing] one’s personal deity,
(3) respectful devotion to the excellent guru,
and (4) ultimate mahāmudrā,
as well as (5) dedicating what has been accumulated in the three times
and the inherent virtue♦ 2 to supreme awakening.
Apart from these [five points], there is no other excellent dharma.
Practice this until perfect awakening is attained!”

[Bodhicitta]
First, the key point of the resolve to awaken:
Practice great compassion again and again
for the enemies who hate you and adversaries who harm you,
and for those who stand in the way
of your liberation and omniscience and hinder you.
This is to be practiced as follows:
Mark a retreat place in a very secluded place
and give up all activities and busyness.
You must dwell without distractions to body and mind!
Practice compassion for all those who harm you
with uninterrupted effort and familiarize with that.
When compassion has authentically arisen,
until you have attained perfect Buddhahood,
commit body, speech, and mind to virtue,
so that all immeasurable beings may attain perfect joy,
freedom from all suffering, and finally Buddhahood.
Commit your body, speech and mind to virtue
until you die and until tomorrow at the same time!
Imagine this and commit yourself!
With this special yogic discipline you will achieve it like this!

[Yidam]
Visualize yourself as your unsurpassed deity
and practice it as something that appears but is without a true nature,
like a brilliantly clear rainbow.
When you visualize like this,
then strive until you are exhausted!
Visualize this and commit yourself!
With this special yogic discipline, you will achieve it like this!

[Guru Yoga]
The glorious Phagmodrupa
‒ precious protector
and embodiment of the Buddhas of the three times ‒
is my excellent personal guru,
who removes the defects and perfects the qualities
in all of us, disciples and servants.

[Mahāmudrā]
As the King of Empowerment teaches,♦ 3
and as it says in the Vasantatilakā:♦ 4
“Practice continuously in the places
of Heruka and Vārāhī!”
The Heruka subdues the vicious ones,
and the venerable Ḍākinī
grants the immeasurable qualities that are beneficial and joyful.
Following the countless authoritative scriptures,
there are many views regarding the practice
relating to the primary and secondary seats (pīṭha and upapīṭha),
the primary and secondary fields (kṣetra and upakṣetra),
the primary and secondary assembly places (chandoha and upacchandoha),
the primary and secondary funeral places (śmaśāna and upaśmaśāna),♦ 5
and the palaces of the five Buddhas,
however, all the vīras of herukas
and all the thirty-seven kinds of ḍākinīs
all have come from the Vārāhī family.
Since the Exalted One has taught this,
do not practice anything other than these two!♦ 6
There is no doubt that the malicious vīras and ḍākinīs
will be destroyed by the wrath,♦ 7
and that the precious protector of beings
will bless you with the boundless ocean of the qualities
of Heruka and of the Yogini.♦ 8
The precious guru who blesses all the qualities in us
through the methods of the hidden mantra
brings about all happiness and well-being.
You should practice day and night
without interrupting your efforts!
Never interrupt your passionate devotion!
When you realize the blessing of your precious guru,
he will be there!
This is the vital point of ultimate mahāmudrā!
I heard the Venerable One say:
“Your own mind is self-originated and spontaneously present.
Do not spoil that which is immutable in the three times
by the notion of meditative absorption and post-meditative phase.
You would fall into the teachings of the Vaibhāśikas!”♦ 9
Since this is what the Protector of the World taught,
follow this instruction!
Your own mind is self-originated and spontaneously present.
It was not created at a previous time,
nothing should be taken away from it at present,
and nothing should be added to it in the future.
From your own mind, which was not created, nothing should be taken away
and nothing should be added to it – it is unchanging and nothing to be practiced.
Should it seem possible to practice it, that is a mistake.
It is spontaneously present and uncreated.
It is to be introduced by the spiritual teacher!
The excellent beings should realize it!
You should not put your hope in anyone other than yourself!
The excellent, peerless guru said that,
apart from realizing and not realizing,
there is no attainment or non-attainment of the fruit.♦ 10
Although it is actually inappropriate to write this down in words,
the spiritual teacher, who is the perfect master
of the precious teachings of [Shakya]muni,
has adorned it with the precious three trainings
and enriched it with the jewels of study, reflection, and practice.
He carries the banner of victory of the teaching that never disappears.
Since the great teacher Ladrangpa
has made this request with faith and devotion,
I have written this down. May all become bearers of the vajra
through the merit that has arisen!

[Dedication of Merit]
Thus, the root of merit is dedicated:♦ 11
“May all merit present in all beings,
which has been accomplished, is being accomplished, and will be accomplished,
result in all beings manifesting themselves according to this good nature
on the respective stages as the supreme excellence (Samantabhadra).”

Follow what has been expressed in this dedication
by the unsurpassed vajra victory banner!

This precious instruction requested by the teacher Ladrangpa, which is a summary of the key points of the unsurpassed vehicle, is hereby concluded.

Die Mahāmudrā-Instruktion für Ladrangpa
Viele Instruktionen in den Gesammelten Werken Jigten Sumgöns sind von ihrem Titel her jeweils einer bestimmten Person gewährt worden. Der Empfänger dieser Instruktion – Geshe Ladrangpa – tritt anderwertig nicht in Erscheinung. Sein Titel „Geshe“ verrät jedoch zumindest, dass es sich um einen gebildeten Schüler handelt, der seinen Titel in einem der zu jener Zeit bereits existierenden Ausbildungszentren erhalten hatte, z.B. in Sangphu (gegr. 1074), Bodong, Sakya, Zhalu, und so weiter.

Der Kern dieser Mahāmudrā-Instruktion ist wieder einmal der Fünfgliedrige Pfad mit (1) Bodhicitta, (2) Praxis der persönlichen Gottheit, (3) Guru-Yoga, (4) Mahāmudrā, und (5) Widmung. Das besondere an dieser Instruktion ist, dass der Abschnitt zur Mahāmudrā-Praxis durch seine Länge hervorgehoben und sehr tantrisch geprägt ist. Diese Praxis-Instruktion ist eine Instruktion für eine Klausur an einem abgeschiedenen Ort. Es wird in ihr zweimal ausdrücklich erwähnt, dass man Mitgefühl für alle üben soll, die einem Schaden zufügen, denn daraus entsteht ein Mitgefühl, das nicht bloß vorgetäuscht ist. Die beiden Übungen der Gottheit und des Guru-Yoga, die das zweite und dritte Glied des Fünfachen Pfades der Mahāmudrā sind, werden zuerst nur kurz erwähnt, das Hauptaugenmerk der Instruktion ist die Mahāmudrā-Praxis.

In der folgenden Mahāmudrā-Instruktion werden die beiden vorherigen Glieder der Yidam-Praxis und des Guru-Yoga aber noch einmal präzisiert. Tatsächlich ist es ja so, dass man Mahāmudrā praktiziert, nachdem man sich selbst als Gottheit visualisiert hat und – auch wenn es hier nicht ausdrücklich erwähnt wird – den Guru in seinem Herzen. In vielen Praxistexten zur Yidam-Gottheit heißt es nun, das man an bestimmten äußeren tantrischen Pilgerstätten praktiziert, die jeweils mit Stellen am eigenen Körper und mit den Bodhisattvastufen verbunden sind, und so weiter. Da jedoch die Vīras, Herukas und Ḍākinīs, die an diesen Orten wohnen, allesamt aus der Vārāhī-Familie hervorgegangen sind, sollte man – so Jigten Sumgön – sich vor allem darauf konzentrieren, den Heruka und die Vajravārāhī in einer Klausur zu praktizieren.

Was hat es mit all den äußeren Pilgerstätten und deren Bewohnern auf sich? Der erste Chungtsang Rinpoche, Rigdzin Chökyidragpa, beschreibt in seiner Geschichte des Cakrasamvara Tantras wie zu Beginn des Kaliyuga, dem Zeitalter der Zwietracht, einige Gandharvas, Yakṣas, Rākṣasas, Nāgās, Asuras, Kinnaras und Ḍākinīs die drei Bereiche der Existenz dominieren wollten. Deshalb luden sie den furchterregenden Maheśvara und seine Gefährtin Kālaratri ein. Dieser emanierte dann 24 Lingams an 24 Orte und rief diese Wesen dazu auf, an diesen Orten Opferfeste zu veranstalten. Deshalb wurde an diesen Orten Sex, Menschenfleisch, Blut usw. dargebracht um Maheśvara zu erfreuen. Daraufhin kamen unzählige Buddhas herbei und emanierten unzählige Gottheiten, die Samādhis und Maṇḍalas manifestierten, durch die unzählige verdorbene und bösartige Wesen aus dem Gefolge Maheśvaras befreit wurden. Schließlich manifestierten sich Cakrasamvara und Vajravārāhī, unterwarfen Maheśvara und Kālaratri und machten sie zu ihren Schülern (sie wurden schließlich auch zu Buddhas). Die Gottheiten des Cakrasamvara-Maṇḍalas unterwarfen schließlich alle Gandharvas, Yakṣas, Rākṣasas, Nāgās, Asuras, Kinnaras und Ḍākinīs. So wurden all diese Orten, an denen zuvor die Dämonen perverse Opferfeste feierten, zu tantrischen Pilgerstätten des Buddhismus.

Wie Jigten Sumgön hier jedoch lehrt, reicht es aus, den Heruka und die Vajravārāhī in der Klausur zu praktizieren, denn alle Gottheiten der verschieden Pilgerstätten gingen aus der Varāhī hervor. Dann „gibt es keinen Zweifel, dass die bösartigen Vīras und Ḍākinīs durch den Zorn vernichtet werden.“ Es ist deshalb wichtig, dass man alle Gottheiten des Maṇḍalas ausschließlich als Heruka und Vārāhī wahrnimmt, das heißt: Alle Vīras sind der Heruka, und die 37 Ḍākinīs sind die Vārāhī. So vollziehen man in der Praxis die Unterwerfung des bösartigen Maheśvaras und seiner Gefährtin Kālaratri nach. Tatsächlich geht der erste Torma, der nach der Segnung des Nektars dargebracht wird, an diese Gandharvas, Yakṣas, Rākṣasas, Nāgās, Asuras, Kinnaras und Ḍākinīs, die früher zu Maheśvaras Gefolge gehörten und nun an Cakrasamvaras Maṇḍala gebunden sind.

Die Praxislinie des Cakrasamvara Tantras wurde so überliefert, dass alle Mitglieder der Überlieferungslinie eine vollständige Verwirklichung erlangt haben und deshalb jeweils ihre Schüler „mit dem grenzenlosen Ozean der Qualitäten des Heruka und der Yogini segnen.“ Dieser Segen wird allein durch den Guru überliefert. Deshalb soll man „Tag und Nacht üben, ohne die Anstrengungen zu unterbrechen!“ Diese ununterbrochene Übung und die leidenschaftliche Hingabe zum Guru bewirken die Segensübertragung. „Das ist der Kernpunkt der letztendlichen Mahāmudrā!“

Dann folgt im Text die tiefgründige Instruktion zur eigentlich Praxis der Mahāmudrā, wie Jigten Sumgön sie von Phagmodrupa erhalten hatte, und die Widmung des Verdienstes.

Ich möchte an dieser Stelle Khenchen Nyima Gyaltsen für seine Hinweise danken, sowie auch Katrin Querl, Yeshe Metok und Sonam Spitz für ihre Unterstützung bei der Übersetzung dieses Textes. Dieses perfekte Teamwork ist immer eine große Freude!

Übersetzung

Zusammenfassung der Kernpunkte des unübertroffenen Fahrzeugs für den großen Geshe Ladrangpa

[Ehrerweisung]
Ich verneige mich mit der Krone meines Kopfes vor den Lotusfüßen
des unvergleichlichen, kostbaren Gurus,
der die Essenz von Körper, Rede und Geist
aller Buddhas der drei Zeiten ist.

[Grundlage aller Praxis: Der fünfgliedrige Pfad]
Ich hörte diesen Guru sagen:
„Heilsam am Anfang, in der Mitte und am Ende
ist das durch die Buddhas der Vergangenheit Gelehrte,
was auch die Buddhas der Zukunft lehren werden,
und was der vollkommene Buddha, der in der Gegenwart erschien,
immer und immer wieder gelehrt hat.♦ 12
Die Kernpunkte sind (1) der Entschlusses zu erwachen, (2) [die Praxis] der persönlichen Gottheit,
(3) die respektvollen Hingabe zum exzellenten Guru
und (4) letztendliches Mahāmudrā,
sowie (5) der Widmung des in den drei Zeiten Angesammelten
und des innewohnenden Heilsamen♦ 13 für das höchste Erwachen.
Abgesehen von diesen [fünf Punkten] gibt es keinen anderen exzellenten Dharma.
Praktiziere dies, bis das vollkommene Erwachen erlangt ist!“

[Bodhicitta]
Zuerst der Kernpunkt des Entschlusses zu erwachen:
Übe immer wieder großes Mitgefühl
für die Feinde, die dich hassen und Widersacher, die dir Schaden zufügen,
und für die, die deiner Befreiung und Allwissenheit
entgegenstehen und dich behindern.
Dies ist wie folgt zu üben:
Stecke an einem sehr abgeschiedenen Ort
deinen Klausurplatz ab und gebe alle Aktivitäten und Geschäftigkeit auf.
Du mußt ohne Ablenkungen für Körper und Geist verweilen!
Übe mit ununterbrochener Anstrengung Mitgefühl für alle,
die dir Schaden zufügen, und gewöhne dich daran.
Daraus entsteht ein Mitgefühl, das nicht bloß vorgetäuscht ist.
Übe dies dann in Hinsicht auf alle Wesen.
Wenn Mitgefühl authentisch entstanden ist,
verpflichte, bis du vollkommene Buddhaschaft erlangt hast,
Körper, Rede und Geist dem Heilsamen,
damit alle unermeßlichen Lebewesen
vollkommene Freude, Freiheit von allem Leid
und schließlich die Buddhaschaft erlangen mögen.
Verpflichte bis zu deinem Tod und bis morgen zum selben Zeitpunkt
Körper, Rede und Geist dem Heilsamen,
Stelle dir dies vor und verpflichte dich!
Mit dieser speziellen yogischen Disziplin wirst du es so erreichen!

[Yidam]
Visualisiere dich als deine unübertroffene Gottheit
und übe sie als etwas, das erscheint, aber ohne eine wahre Natur ist,
wie ein strahlend klarer Regenbogen.
Wenn du so visualisierst,
dann bemühe dich, bis du erschöpft bist!
Stelle dir dies vor und verpflichte dich!
Mit dieser speziellen yogischen Disziplin wirst du es so erreichen!

[Guru Yoga]
Der glanzerfüllte Phagmodrupa
‒ kostbarer Beschützer
und Verkörperung der Buddhas der drei Zeiten ‒
ist mein exzellenter persönlicher Guru,
der bei uns allen, den Schülern und Dienern,
die Fehler beseitigt und die Qualitäten vollendet.

[Mahāmudrā]
So, wie der König der Ermächtigung es lehrt,♦ 14
und wie es im Vasantatilakā heißt:♦ 15
“Praktiziere ununterbrochen an den Plätzen
des Heruka und der Vārāhī!”
Der Heruka unterwirft die Bösartigen
und die ehrwürdige Ḍākinī
gewährt die unermeßlichen Qualitäten, die nützlich und freudvoll sind.
Folgt man den zahllosen autoritativen Schriften,
gibt es viele Auffassungen hinsichtlich der Praxis
bezüglich der Haupt- und Nebensitze (pīṭha und upapīṭha),
der primären und sekundären Felder (kṣetra und upakṣetra),
der Haupt- und Nebenversammlungsorte (chandoha und upacchandoha),
der primären und sekundären Leichenplätzen (śmaśāna, upaśmaśāna),♦ 16
und der Paläste der fünf Buddhas,
jedoch sind alle Vīras der Herukas
und alle die siebenunddreißig Arten von Ḍākinīs
allesamt aus der Vārāhī-Familie hervorgegangen.
Da der Erhabene dies gelehrt hat,
praktiziere nichts anderes
als diese Beiden!♦ 17
Es gibt keinen Zweifel, dass die bösartigen Vīras und Ḍākinīs
durch den Zorn vernichtet werden,♦ 18
und dass der kostbare Beschützer der Wesen dich
mit dem grenzenlosen Ozean der Qualitäten
des Heruka und der Yogini segnet.♦ 19
Der kostbare Guru, der alle Qulitäten in uns
durch die Methoden des verborgenen Mantra segnet,
bewirkt alles Glück und Wohl.
Du solltest Tag und Nacht üben,
ohne die Anstrengungen zu unterbrechen!
Unterbreche niemals dein leidenschaftliche Hingabe!
Wenn du den Segen deines kostbaren Gurus erkennst,
wird er da sein.
Das ist der Kernpunkt der letztendlichen Mahāmudrā!
Ich hörte den Ehrwürdigen sagen:
ADein eigener Geist ist selbst-entstanden und spontan gegenwärtig.
Verdirb nicht das, was in den drei Zeiten unwandelbar ist,
durch die Vorstellung von meditativen Vertiefung und nach-meditativen Phase.
Du würdest den Lehren der Vaibhāśikas verfallen!♦ 20
Da dies der Beschützer der Welt lehrte,
folge dieser Instruktion!
Der eigene Geist ist selbst-entstanden und spontan gegenwärtig.
Er wurde nicht zu einer früheren Zeit erschaffen,
gegenwärtig sollte ihm nichts entzogen werden,
und in der Zukunft sollte ihm nichts hinzugefügt werden.
Dein eigener Geist, der nicht geschaffen wurde, dem nichts entzogen
und nichts hinzugefügt werden sollte, ist unwandelbar und nichts, was zu praktizieren ist.
Sollte es möglich erscheinen, ihn zu praktizieren, ist das ein Irrtum.
Er ist spontan gegenwärtig und unerschaffen.
Er soll durch den spirituellen Lehrer eingeführt werden!
Die exzellenten Wesen sollen ihn verwirklichen!
Du sollstest in niemand anderen als dich selbst deine Hoffnung setzen!
Der exzellente, unvergleichliche Guru sagte,
dass es, abgesehen vom Verwirklichen und Nicht-Verwirklichen,
kein Erlangen oder Nicht-Erlangen der Frucht gibt.♦ 21
Obwohl es eigentlich unpassend ist, dies in Worten niederzuschreiben,
hat der spirituelle Lehrer, der der vollkommene Herr
der kostbaren Lehren des [Shakya]muni ist,
es mit den kostbaren drei Schulungen verziert
und mit den Juwelen von Studium, Reflexion und Praxis angereichert.
Er trägt das Siegesbanner der niemals untergehenden Lehre.
Da der große Lehrmeister Ladrangpa
mit Vertrauen und Hingabe diese Bitte vorgebracht hat,
habe ich dies niedergeschrieben. Mögen Alle durch das entstandene Verdienst
zu Trägern des Vajra werden!

[Widmung des Verdienstes]
So wird die Wurzel des Verdienstes gewidmet:♦ 22
“Möge alles Verdienst, das bei allen Wesen vorhanden ist,
das vollbracht wurde, wird, und werden wird,
dazu führen, dass sich alle Wesen dieser guten Natur entsprechend
auf den jeweiligen Stufen als die höchste Exzellenz (Samantabhadra) manifestieren.”

Folge dem, was in dieser Widmung durch den unübertroffenen Vajra-Siegesbanner
zum Ausdruck gebracht worden ist!

Diese von dem Lehrmeister Ladrangpa erbetene kostbare Instruktion, die eine Zusammenfassung der Kernpunkte des unübertroffenen Fahrzeugs ist, ist hiermit abgeschlossen.

NOTES/ANMERKUNGEN
1. []Mañjuśrīnāmasaṃgīti, D vol. 77, 2r5.
2. []The virtue accumulated in the three times is the accumulation of merit and wisdom, and the inherent virtue is the Buddha nature present in all beings.
3. []Phagmodrupa, Yid bzhin gyi nor bu rin po che dbang gi rgyal po lta bu’i gdams ngag blo gros, Collected Works, vol. 2, pp. 1‒66.
4. []Kṛṣṇācāryaʼs Vasantatilakā (dPyid kyi thig le) from the Cakrasaṃvara cycle, D no. 1448, vol. wa, fols. 298b2‒306b4.
5. []In very general terms, these places came into existence when the Heruka of the Cakrasaṃvara Tantra destroyed the fearsome Maheśvara and distributed his body parts in 24 main and eight secondary places.
6. []“These two” means Heruka-Cakrasaṃvara and Vārāhī.
7. []Vīras and ḍākinīs, before being subdued by the main deity (Cakrasamvara) and integrated into the maṇḍala, are dangerous beings. It is therefore important to perceive all the deities of the maṇḍalas exclusively as Heruka and Vārāhī, that is, all the vīras are Heruka, and the 37 ḍākinīs are the Vārāhī (Khenchen Nyima Gyaltsen).
8. []“Guardian of beings” (ʼgro baʼi mgon po) is here Jigten Sumgönʼs guru Phagmodrupa. He grants the qualities of separation from afflictions and the maturing of qualities (Khenchen Nyima Gyaltsen).
9. []Khenchen Nyima Gyaltsen explains this as follows: Usually the phase of meditative absorption is considered to be the same as space and the post-meditative phase is considered to be something completely different from it. But this is a mistake. The realization of that “which is unchanging in the three times,” that is, the nature of mind or mahāmudrā, is spoiled by such divisions. “Vaibhashika” here stands for the lowest Buddhist view, which is known for dividing things and then considering them to be truly existent.
10. []That is, the only thing that matters is whether or not one achieves realizatopn. Other results are of no importance. Phagmodrupa’s Works, vol. 3, p. 393.
11. []Buddhāvataṃsaka Mahāvaipūlyasūtra, D vol. 36, 165v. Read: red ʼgyur cig.
12. []Mañjuśrīnāmasaṃgīti, D vol. 77, 2r5.
13. []Das in den drei Zeiten angesammelte Heilsame sind die Ansammlungen von Verdienst und Weisheit, und das innewohnende Heilsame ist die in allen Wesen vorhandene Buddhanatur.
14. []Phagmodrupa, Yid bzhin gyi nor bu rin po che dbang gi rgyal po lta bu’i gdams ngag blo gros, Gesammelte Werke, Bd. 2, S. 1‒66.
15. []Kṛṣṇācāryas Vasantatilakā (dPyid kyi thig le) aus dem Cakrasaṃvara-Zyklus, D no. 1448, Bd. wa, fols. 298b2‒306b4.
16. []Ganz allgemein gesagt entstanden diese Orte, als der Heruka des Cakrasaṃvara Tantra den Maheśvara vernichtete und seine Körperteile an 24 Haupt- und acht Sekundärplätzen verteilte.
17. []Mit “diese Beiden” sind Heruka-Cakrasaṃvara und Vārāhī gemeint.
18. []Vīras und Ḍākinīs sind, bevor sie von der Hauptgottheit unterworfen und in das Maṇḍala integriert wurden, gefährliche Wesen. Es ist deshalb wichtig, dass man alle Gottheiten des Maṇḍalas ausschließlich als Heruka und Vārāhī wahrnimmt, das heißt: Alle Vīras sind der Heruka, und die 37 Ḍākinīs sind die Vārāhī (Khenchen Nyima Gyaltsen).
19. []“Schützer der Wesen” (‘gro ba’i mgon po) ist hier Jigten Sumgön’s Guru Phagmodrupa gemeint. Er gewährt die Qualitäten des Getrenntseins von Geistesgiften und der Heranreifung von Qualitäten (Khenchen Nyima Gyaltsen).
20. []Khenchen Nyima Gyaltsen erläutert dies folgendermaßen: Gewöhnlich wird die Phase der meditativen Vertiefung als raumgleich und die nach-meditative Phase als etwas komplett davon verschiedenes betrachtet. Das ist aber ein Fehler. Die Verwirklichung desses, „was in den drei Zeiten unwandelbar ist“, also der Natur des Geistes oder der Mahāmudrā, wird durch solche Unterteilungen verdorben. „Vaibhashika“ steht hier für die niedrigste buddhistische Sichtweise, die dafür bekannt ist, die Dinge zu unterteilen und dann als wahrhaft existent zu betrachten.
21. []Das heißt, dass es allein darauf ankommt, ob man Verwiklichung erlangt, oder nicht. Andere Resultate sind ohne Bedeutung. Phagmodrupa’s Werke, Bd. 3, S. 393.
22. []Buddhāvataṃsaka Mahāvaipūlyasūtra, D vol. 36, 165v. Lies: red ʼgyur cig.

(German translation below)

Once again, Jigten Sumgön teaches the practice of Mahāmudrā as the Fivefold Profound Path. He calls this instruction the “quintessential practice of sūtra and mantra.” This is interesting in view of the fact that in recent years, many Western writers have described the teachings of Mahāmudrā that come from Gampopa as “sūtra mahāmudrā,” following the lead of some Karma-Kagyü teachers of the 19th and 20th century, starting with the first Kongtrul Rinpoche. But Gampopa himself has never described his method as “sūtra mahāmudrā.” Instead, Gampopa himself has differentiated the Buddhist paths of practice in other ways. Once, in reply to a question of the first Karmapa, he said that there is

1. the path of inference (= sūtra)

2. the path of blessing (= receiving empowerment and practicing deities, mantras, etc.)

3. the path of direct perception (= the mahāmudrā of innate luminosity)

Here, the sūtra is a path where one identifies through arguments what is to be accomplished and what is to be abandoned. In mantra, through the blessing of the gurus of the transmission, one realizes the purity of all phenomena, whereby, in a way, the faults are transformed into qualities. In mahāmudrā, the innate luminosity of the mind is directly perceived. The point is that mahāmudrā does neither need inferences nor transformations. The mind itself already is mahāmudrā; directly perceiving that is liberation. But such direct perception needs masses of merit, and these are accumulated through the practices of the sūtra path and—much faster—through the mantra path of blessing, empowerment, practicing deities, and so forth. Thus, unless you are an instantaneous realizer with masses of merit from practice in previous lives, your mahāmudrā approach will be one through practices of sūtra and mantra.

Moreover, the third path of direct perception, too, is not outside of mantra. Only the sūtra approach is outside of mantra, since Gampopa explained that sūtra is an indirect approach (through inferences) while “mantra takes the actual, direct object as the path.” Hence, the third path above—the path of direct perception—is also a mantra path. To conclude this point, Gampopa’s mahāmudrā is not a “sūtra mahāmudrā.” For those few individuals who are instantaneous realizers (and not even Milarepa and Gampopa counted themselves among such lucky individuals), it is a mantra path of direct perception, and for everyone else, including Mila and Gampopa, mahāmudrā is achieved through sūtra and mantra practices.

This is also the case in Jigten Sumgön’s Fivefold Path of Mahāmudrā. Both the first and the last of the five limbs are sūtra practices, namely (1) love, compassion, and bodhicitta and (5) dedication of merit. The second and third limb are mantra practices, namely (2) practicing the deity (in this instructions, it is explicitly mentioned that one can use Avalokiteśvara for the Fivefold Path) and (3) practicing the guru in one’s heart, or, at the time of death, at the crown of your head. Having practiced the first three limbs, one dwells within one’s clear awareness without thoughts, which is the practice of mahāmudrā, embedded in practices of sūtra and mantra. Dwelling in that state, from time to time, one dedicates the merit to all sentient beings, which is the fifth limb.

This instruction of Jigten Sumgön is explicitly directed to laypersons.

Translation

In general, the certain cause of attaining perfect buddhahood is the resolve for awakening. Therefore, at all times and in all ways, when you practice the root of the great waves of virtue, when you do any practice, and at the beginning of any practice session, practice as follows to bring forth the resolve:

“May all my mothers—the sentient beings who are as limitless as space—have happiness, be free from suffering, and attain the precious, supreme, and perfect awakening. For that purpose, I will, until I reach buddhahood, bind body, speech, and mind to virtue. I will, until I die, bind body, speech, and mind to virtue. I will, until the same time tomorrow, bind body, speech, and mind to virtue”—thinking that, practice your body as your cherished deity. If you do not have such a deity, practice my cherished deity, the lord of great compassion, the noble Avalokiteśvara, or any powerful lord whatsoever. Practice the excellent guru in your heart. At the time of death, practice him at the crown of your head, it is said.

Then, look at your own vigilant and clear awareness and “not seeing anything at the time of looking is seeing true reality.” Therefore, dwell in that state without any mental activity.

If your mind begins to stirr again with high and low thoughts, transform your going, standing, lying, sitting, or any other conduct so that through practice, it becomes uninterrupted virtuous practice, the essence of being without thoughts, and the spontaneously accomplished nature. Then maintain that without interruption.

After you have cultivated the root of virtue or dwelled in meditative balance in your practice, recollect from time to time the root of virtue that has been accumulated by yourself and all sentient beings in the three times and the virtue that is existent [in the buddha nature of all beings]:

“May through this virtue that I and all sentient beings in the three times have accumulated, and that is existent, I and all sentient beings quickly attain the precious, supreme, and perfect awakening.” Thereby the root of virtue is to be dedicated.

You must practice at all times uninterruptedly in that manner, guard the precious approximation vow(*) and whichever lay vows from among the four roots you can maintain. Accordingly, the Exalted One said: “If you do not guard at least one rule, you are not part of my retinue.” Thus, knowing that all activities are without purpose if you do not belong to the retinue of our teacher, make efforts to guard disciplined conduct! This is complete.

Note

(*) “Approximation vows” (bsnyen gnas kyi sdom pa, Skt. upavasasaṃvara), are vows where laypersons practice the first four vows of ordination, relinquish alcohol, fancy clothing, jewelry, and high seats, and also cease taking meals after noon for one day to approximate the vows of ordination.

Quintessenz der Praxis von Sūtra und Mantra: Die Wesentliche Unterweisung des Fünffachen Pfades der Mahāmudrā

Einmal mehr lehrt Jigten Sumgön die Praxis von Mahāmudrā als den Fünffachen Tiefgründigen Pfad. Er nennt diese Unterweisung die “Quintessenz der Praxis von Sūtra und Mantra”. Dies ist interessant angesichts der Tatsache, dass in den letzten Jahren viele westliche Autoren die Lehren der Mahāmudrā, die von Gampopa stammen, als “Sūtra Mahāmudrā” bezeichnet haben, in Anlehnung an einige Karma-Kagyü Lehrer des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts, beginnend mit dem ersten Kongtrul Rinpoche. Aber Gampopa selbst hat seine Methode nie als “Sūtra Mahāmudrā” bezeichnet. Stattdessen hat Gampopa selbst die buddhistischen Praxispfade auf andere Weise unterschieden. Einmal sagte er als Antwort auf eine Frage des ersten Karmapa, es gäbe

1. den Pfad der Schlussfolgerung (= sūtra)

2. den Weg der Segnung (= Empfang von Ermächtigungen und Praxis der Gottheiten, Mantrarezitation, usw.)

3. den Weg der direkten Wahrnehmung (= die Mahāmudrā der angeborenen Lichthaftigkeit)

Hier ist das Sūtra ein Weg, auf dem man durch Argumente feststellt, was zu erreichen und was aufzugeben ist. Im Mantra erkennt man durch den Segen der Gurus der Überlieferungslinie die Reinheit aller Phänomene, wodurch gewissermaßen die Fehler in Qualitäten verwandelt werden. In der Mahāmudrā wird die angeborene Lichthaftigkeit des Geistes direkt wahrgenommen. Der Punkt ist, dass Mahāmudrā weder Schlussfolgerungen noch Umwandlungen benötigt. Der Geist selbst ist bereits Mahāmudrā; dies direkt wahrzunehmen ist Befreiung. Aber eine solche direkte Wahrnehmung erfordert Massen von Verdienst, und diese werden durch die Praxis des Sūtra-Pfades und – viel schneller – durch den Mantra-Pfad des Segnens, der Ermächtigung, der Praxis der Gottheiten und so weiter angesammelt. Wenn man also kein plötzlicher Verwirklicher ist, der durch die Praxis in früheren Leben massenhaft Verdienst erworben hat, wird man Mahāmudrā durch die Praxis von Sūtra und Mantra verwirklichen.

Aber auch der oben erwähnte dritte Pfad der direkten Wahrnehmung liegt nicht außerhalb von Mantra. Nur der Sūtra-Pfad ist außerhalb von Mantra, da Gampopa erklärte, dass Sūtra eine indirekte Annäherung (durch Schlussfolgerungen) ist, während “Mantra das eigentliche, direkte Objekt als Weg nimmt.” Daher ist dieser dritte Pfad – der Pfad der direkten Wahrnehmung – ebenso ein Mantra-Pfad. Um diesen Punkt abzuschließen: Gampopas Mahāmudrā ist kein “Sūtra Mahāmudrā.” Für jene wenigen Individuen, die plötzliche Verwirklicher sind (und nicht einmal Milarepa und Gampopa zählten sich selbst zu diesen glücklichen Individuen), ist es ein Mantra-Pfad der direkten Wahrnehmung, und für alle anderen, einschließlich Mila und Gampopa, wird Mahāmudrā durch Sūtra- und Mantra-Praktiken erreicht.

Dies ist auch der Fall in Jigten Sumgöns Fünffachem Pfad der Mahāmudrā. Sowohl das erste als auch das letzte der fünf Glieder sind Sūtra-Praktiken, nämlich (1) Liebe, Mitgefühl und Bodhicitta und (5) Widmung von Verdienst. Das zweite und dritte Glied sind Mantra-Praktiken, nämlich (2) die Praxis der Gottheit (in dieser Instruktion wird ausdrücklich erwähnt, dass man Avalokiteśvara für den Fünffachen Pfad verwenden kann) und (3) die Praxis des Gurus im Herzen oder, zum Zeitpunkt des Todes, auf dem Scheitel des Kopfes. Nachdem man die ersten drei Glieder geübt hat, verweilt man in seinem klaren Gewahrsein ohne Gedanken, was die Praxis der Mahāmudrā ist, eingebettet in die Praxis von Sūtra und Mantra. In diesem Zustand verweilend, widmet man von Zeit zu Zeit den Verdienst allen fühlenden Wesen, was das fünfte Glied ist.

Diese Unterweisung von Jigten Sumgön richtet sich ausdrücklich an Laien.

Übersetzung

Im Allgemeinen ist die sichere Ursache für das Erreichen der vollkommenen Buddhaschaft der Entschluss zu Erwachen. Gelobe daher zu jeder Zeit und auf jede Weise wie folgt den Entschluss hervorzubrigen wenn du die Wurzel der großen Wellen des Heilsamen praktizierst, wenn du irgendeine Praxis übst, und zu Beginn einer jeden Praxissitzung:

“Mögen alle meine Mütter — die fühlenden Wesen, die so grenzenlos wie der Raum sind — Glück besitzen, frei von Leiden sein und das kostbare, höchste und vollkommene Erwachen erlangen; zu diesem Zweck werde ich, bis ich die Buddhaschaft erreicht habe, Körper, Rede und Geist an das Heilsame binden; ich werde, bis ich sterbe, Körper, Rede und Geist an das Heilsame binden; und ich werde, bis zur gleichen Zeit morgen, Körper, Rede und Geist an das Heilsame binden”—wenn du das denkst, übe deinen Körper als die Gottheit, die du am meißten schätzt. Wenn du keine solche Gottheit hast, praktiziere meine geschätzte Gottheit, den Herrn des großen Mitgefühls, den edlen Avalokiteśvara, oder irgendeinen anderen mächtigen Herrn. Praktiziere den ausgezeichneten Guru in deinem Herzen. Zur Zeit des Todes praktiziere ihn auf dem Scheitel deines Kopfes, so heißt es.

Dann schaue auf dein eigenes waches und klares Gewahrsein und “nichts zu sehen zum Zeitpunkt des Betrachtens ist das Sehen der wahren Wirklichkeit.” Verweile also in diesem Zustand ohne jegliche geistige Aktivität.

Wenn dein Geist wieder beginnt, sich mit hohen und niedrigen Gedanken zu bewegen, wandele dein Gehen, Stehen, Liegen, Sitzen oder jedes andere Verhalten so um, dass es durch die Praxis zu einer ununterbrochenen heilsamen Praxis wird, die Essenz des ohne Gedanken Seins und die spontan vollendete Natur. Dann halte dies ohne Unterbrechung aufrecht.

Nachdem du die Wurzel des Heilsamen hervorgebracht oder in meditativer Ausgeglichenheit in der Praxis verweilt hast, rufe dir von Zeit zu Zeit die Wurzel des Heilsamen, das von dir und allen fühlenden Wesen in den drei Zeiten angesammelt wurde, und des Heilsamen, das [in der Buddhanatur aller Wesen] vorhanden ist, ins Gedächtnis:

“Mögen ich und alle fühlenden Wesen durch dieses Heilsame, das von mir und allen fühlenden Wesen in den drei Zeiten angesammelt worden ist und das [in der Buddhanatur der Wesen] existent ist, schnell das kostbare, höchste und vollkommene Erwachen erlangen.” So ist die Wurzel des Heilsamen zu widmen.

Es ist sehr wichtig, dass man zu allen Zeiten ununterbrochen auf diese Weise praktiziert, das kostbare Annäherungsgelübde(*) bewahrt und je nach Fähigkeit eines oder mehrere der vier Wurzelgelübde aufrecht erhält. Dementsprechend sagte der Erhabene: “Wenn du nicht mindestens eine Regel bewahrst, gehörst du nicht zu meinem Gefolge.” Da ihr also wisst, dass alle Betätigungen zwecklos sind, wenn ihr nicht zum Gefolge unseres Lehrers gehört, bemüht euch, diszipliniertes Verhalten zu bewahren! Dies ist vollständig.

Anmerkung

(*) “Annäherungsgelübde” (bsnyen gnas kyi sdom pa, Skt. upavasasaṃvara), sind die Gelübde, bei denen Laien für einen Tag die ersten vier Gelübde der Ordination praktizieren, auf Alkohol, besondere Kleidung, Schmuck und hohe Sitze verzichten und auch die Einnahme von Mahlzeiten nach dem Mittag einstellen, um sich den Gelübden der Ordination anzunähern.

Collected Works of Jigten Sumgon, vol. 3, p. 67‒70.

མདོ་སྔགས་ཉམས་ལེན་གྱི་ཉིང་ཁུ་ཕྱག་ཆེན་ལྔ་ལྡན་གྱི་ཁྲིད་སྙིང་བསྡུས༎ བླ་མ་དམ་པ་རྣམས་ལ་ཕྱག་འཚལ་ལོ། །སྤྱིར་རྫོགས་པའི་སངས་རྒྱས་ཐོབ་པར་བྱེད་པའི་རྒྱུ་ངེས་པ་བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་ཡིན་པས། དུས་དང་རྣམ་པ་ཐམས་ཅད་དང་། རླབས་པོ་ཆེའི་དགེ་བའི་རྩ་བ་བྱེད་པ་དང་། ཉམས་ལེན་གང་དུ་བསྣུན་པའི་དུས་དང་བསྒོམས་པའི་ཐུན་འགོ་ལ། སེམས་བསྐྱེད་པའི་དམ་བཅའ་འདི་ལྟར་བྱ་སྟེ། མ་ནམ་མཁའ་དང་མཉམ་པའི་སེམས་ཅན་ཐམས་ཅད་བདེ་བ་དང་ལྡན། སྡུག་བསྔལ་དང་བྲལ། བླ་ན་མེད་པ་ཡང་དག་པར་རྫོགས་པའི་བྱང་ཆུབ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ་ཐོབ་པར་བྱ། དེའི་ཆེད་དུ་སངས་མ་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་བར་དུ་ལུས་ངག་ཡིད་གསུམ་དགེ་བ་ལ་བཀོལ། མ་ཤིའི་བར་དུ་ལུས་ངག་ཡིད་གསུམ་དགེ་བ་ལ་བཀོལ། དུས་དེ་རིང་ནས་བཟུང་ནས་ཉི་མ་སང་ད་ཙམ་གྱི་བར་དུ་ལུས་ངག་ཡིད་གསུམ་དགེ་བ་ལ་བཀོལ་སྙམ་དུ་བསམས་ལ། རང་གི་ལུས་ཡི་དམ་གྱི་ལྷར་བསྒོམ། མེད་ན་ངའི་ཡི་དམ་གྱི་ལྷ། ཇོ་བོ་ཐུགས་རྗེ་ཆེན་པོ་རྗེ་བཙུན་སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས་དབང་ཕྱུག་གང་ཡང་རུང་བ་ཞིག་ཏུ་བསྒོམ། བླ་མ་དམ་པ་ཐུགས་ཀར་བསྒོམ། ནམ་འཆི་བའི་དུས་སུ་ནི་སྤྱི་བོར་བསྒོམ་པ་ཡིན་གསུངས། དེ་ནས་རང་གི་རིག་པ་རིག་རིག་ཏུར་ཏུར་པོ་འདི་ལ་བལྟས་ལ། བལྟས་པའི་དུས་སུ་གང་ཡང་མ་མཐོང་བ་དེ་ཁོ་ན་ཉིད་མཐོང་བའོ་ཞེས་པས། དེའི་ངང་ལ་ཅི་ཡང་ཡིད་ལ་མི་བྱེད་པར་བཞག། རྣམ་པར་རྟོག་པ་མཐོ་དམན་གྱིས་སེམས་རྣམ་པར་གཡེངས་ན། འགྲོ་འཆག་ཉལ་འདུག་གམ། སྤྱོད་ལམ་བསྒྱུར་ནས་བསྒོམས་པས་རྒྱུན་ཆད་མེད་པའི་དགེ་སྦྱོར། རྣམ་རྟོག་མེད་པའི་ངོ་བོ། ལྷུན་གྱིས་གྲུབ་པའི་རང་བཞིན་དུ་འོང་བ་ཡིན་པས། དེ་རྒྱུན་ཆད་མེད་པར་བསྐྱང་། དགེ་བའི་རྩ་བ་བྱས་པའི་རྗེས་སམ། ཐུགས་དམ་ལ་མཉམ་པར་བཞག་པའི་རྗེས་ལ། སྐབས་སྐབས་སུ་བདག་དང་སེམས་ཅན་ཐམས་ཅད་ཀྱིས་དུས་གསུམ་དུ་བསགས་ཤིང་ཡོད་པའི་དགེ་བའི་རྩ་བ་དྲན་པར་བྱས། བདག་དང་སེམས་ཅན་ཐམས་ཅད་ཀྱིs་དུས་གསུམ་དུ་བསགས་ཤིང་ཡོད་པའི་དགེ་བའི་རྩ་བ་འདིས། བདག་དང་སེམས་ཅན་ཐམས་ཅད་མྱུར་དུ་བླ་ན་མེད་པར་ཡང་དག་པར་རྫོགས་པའི་བྱང་ཆུབ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ་ཐོབ་པར་གྱུར་ཅིག་ཅེས། དགེ་བའི་རྩ་བ་བསྔོ་བར་བྱའོ། །དུས་རྒྱུན་ཆད་མེད་པར་ཚུལ་དེ་ལྟར་ཉམས་སུ་བླང་ཞིང་། བསྙེན་གནས་ཀྱི་སྡོམ་པ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ་བསྲུང་བ་དང་། རྩ་བ་བཞི་ལས་གང་ཐུབ་ཐུབ་ཀྱི་དགེ་བསྙེན་གྱི་སྡོམ་པ་སྲུང་བ་གལ་ཆེ་སྟེ། དེ་ལྟར་ཡང་བཅོམ་ལྡན་འདས་ཀྱིས། ཁྲིམས་གཅིག་ཙམ་ཡང་མི་བསྲུང་ན་ངའི་འཁོར་དུ་མ་གཏོགས་སོ། །ཞེས་གསུངས་པས་སྟོན་པའི་འཁོར་དུ་མ་གཏོགས་ན་བྱས་པ་ཐམས་ཅད་དོན་མེད་པར་ཤེས་པར་བྱས་ནས། ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་བསྲུང་བ་ལ་འབད་པར་བྱའོ། །རྫོགས་སོ༎་༎

mdo sngags nyams len gyi nying khu phyag chen lnga ldan gyi khrid snying bsdus//»  bla ma dam pa rnams la phyag ‘tshal lo/ / spyir rdzogs pa’i sangs rgyas thob par byed pa’i rgyu nges pa byang chub kyi sems yin pas/ dus dang rnam pa thams cad dang / rlabs po che’i dge ba’i rtsa ba byed pa dang / nyams len gang du bsnun pa’i dus dang bsgoms pa’i thun ‘go <68>la/ sems bskyed pa’i dam bca’ ‘di ltar bya ste/ ma nam mkha’ dang mnyam pa’i sems can thams cad bde ba dang ldan/ sdug bsngal dang bral/ bla na med pa yang dag par rdzogs pa’i byang chub rin po che thob par bya/ de’i ched du sangs ma rgyas kyi bar du lus ngag yid gsum dge ba la bkol/ ma shi’i bar du lus ngag yid gsum dge ba la bkol/ dus de ring nas bzung nas nyi ma sang da tsam gyi bar du lus ngag yid gsum dge ba la bkol snyam du bsams la/ rang gi lus yi dam gyi lhar bsgom/ med na nga’i yi dam gyi lha/ jo bo thugs rje chen po rje btsun spyan ras gzigs dbang phyug gang yang rung ba zhig tu bsgom/ bla ma dam pa thugs kar bsgom/ nam ‘chi ba’i dus su ni spyi bor bsgom pa yin gsungs/ de nas rang gi rig pa rig rig tur tur po ‘di la bltas la/ bltas pa’i dus su gang yang ma mthong ba de kho na nyid mthong ba’o zhes <69>pas/ de’i ngang la ci yang yid la mi byed par bzhag/ rnam par rtog pa mtho dman gyis sems rnam par g.yengs na/ ‘gro ‘chag nyal ‘dug gam/ spyod lam bsgyur nas bsgoms pas rgyun chad med pa’i dge sbyor/ rnam rtog med pa’i ngo bo/ lhun gyis grub pa’i rang bzhin du ‘ong ba yin pas/ de rgyun chad med par bskyang / dge ba’i rtsa ba byas pa’i rjes sam/ thugs dam la mnyam par bzhag pa’i rjes la/ skabs skabs su bdag dang sems can thams cad kyis dus gsum du bsags shing yod pa’i dge ba’i rtsa ba dran par byas/ bdag dang sems can thams cad kyi[s] dus gsum du bsags shing yod pa’i dge ba’i rtsa ba ‘dis/ bdag dang sems can thams cad myur du bla na med par yang dag par rdzogs pa’i byang chub rin po che thob par gyur cig ces/ dge ba’i rtsa ba bsngo bar bya’o/ /dus rgyun chad med par tshul de <70>ltar nyams su blang zhing / bsnyen gnas kyi sdom pa rin po che bsrung ba dang / rtsa ba bzhi las gang thub thub kyi dge bsnyen gyi sdom pa srung ba gal che ste/ de ltar yang bcom ldan ‘das kyis/ khrims gcig tsam yang mi bsrung na nga’i ‘khor du ma gtogs so/ /zhes gsungs pas ston pa’i ‘khor du ma gtogs na byas pa thams cad don med par shes par byas nas/ tshul khrims bsrung ba la ‘bad par bya’o/ /rdzogs so//    //

There is brief instruction found in the third volume of Jigten Sumgön’s collected works that brings together three main instructions he had received from his guru, Phagmodrupa.

(A) The first is the ever-present Fivefold Path of Mahāmudrā, consisting of the resolve for awakening, the practice of the cherished deity (yi dam), guru yoga, mahāmudrā, and dedication. It is presented here very briefly as the following stages:

(1) Recollecting impermanence and death and the disadvantages of transmigration as the basis of all practices, which are a part of the four thoughts that turn the mind to the dharma, namely (a) the leisures and endowments of the precious human body, (b) impermanence and certain death, (c) karma, cause, and result, and (d) the disadvantages of saṃsāra. Jigten Sumgon urges his followers to practice these at the beginning of each practice session or at least at the beginning of the first session in the morning (vajra statement 2.14).
(2) The practice of love, compassion, and the resolve for awakening (bodhicitta).
(3) The practice of the body as the cherishes deity (yi dam).
(4) The practice of guru yoga by visualizing one’s guru in the center of one’s heart.
(5) The practice of “the mind,” i.e., of mahāmudrā, which is the central instruction here.
(6) The dedication of merit, which closes the instruction.

Mahāmudrā is here presented directly as the practice of the nature of the mind and in its very essence of non-attachment. This kind of non-attachment is not only the very essence of disciplined conduct, but also of mahāmudrā, which is why vajra statement 6.13 says: “That mahāmudrā and disciplined conduct (śīla) are one is an unsurpassed special teaching of Jigten Sumgön.” In the present context, Jigten Sumgon teaches that the practice of the mind is essentially non-attachment to the concept of existence and non-existence of the mind, non-attachment to the theory of “only mind,” which teaches that all appearances are only mind (an allusion to the philosophy of cittamātra), and non-attachment to the theory of remaining in the middle between these extremes, which is an allusion to the philosophy of madhyamaka.♦ 1 Moreover, this practice of the nature of the mind is also the non-attachment to the “three spheres,” which refers to the mental imputation of a practitioner, a practice, and an object of the practice, such as a deity or a mantra. It is in this way of perfect non-attachment to any dualistic conception that one should “abide perfectly with deity and mantra in the nature that is free from proliferation.”

(B) The second main instruction that is contained in this brief instruction is that such a practice that is free from these dualistic concepts of establishing and abandoning, where no conception of anything to think or to practice is left, is the point on the path were the third yoga of mahāmudrā, one-taste, is accomplished and view, practice, and realization become indistinguishable. The lines that we find here and that are attributed to Phagmodrupa are an approximate rendering of a verse found in the works of Phagmodrupa:♦ 2

If you do not let go or not let go, invoke or not invoke,
focus on an object, or set up a support,
and if you, not practicing anything, rest in that innate state,
you will experience that which has no boundaries nor center, like space.

This is to be practiced at all times while going, standing, lying down, and sitting.

(C) The third main instruction contained in this brief instruction is that the liberation that occurs when realization arises in such a practice is the guru’s blessing. This is expressed in the famous passage of the Hevajra Tantra that teaches that the innate “is to be known through the final moment of guru attendance.” As Jigten Sumgon explains elsewhere, this

“final moment of guru attendance” does not refer to making great offerings, performing many services, and attending the guru for a long time. Since beyond seeing the guru as dharmakāya and the arising of certainty about that, there is no occasion of regarding him as anything superior to that, this [seeing of the guru as dharmakāya] is called “the final moment.”♦ 3

Such an “attendance” is the true guru devotion as it is also taught in the Samādhirāja Sūtra, also known as the Candrapradīpa[sūtra], and it is the “supreme intention of the precious one” (Phagmodrupa).

The guruʼs profound intention:
View, practice, and realization are of one-taste and indistinguishable

Oṃ Svasti!

I bow my head to the feet of the supreme guru,
who has permanently overcome total darkness,
leads the beings away from the swamp of saṃsāra,
and reveals the meaning as it is and in all its variety.
For the sake of the devoted ones, I will write down these words
that have been requested by the good disciple,
who has gathered together the great collection of supreme accumulations
and has spoken a supplicated with respectful devotion.

In general, the state of being for all of us is that of [certain] death and impermanence. There is neither bottom nor limit to the sufferings of transmigration and the lower births. Because you and all others wish to escape from the sufferings of transmigration and lower births, practice at first love, compassion, and the resolve for awakening. Then practice that your body is your cherished deity. Imagine the excellent guru in the center of your heart. Then, your mind:

Don’t practice it as existing, that would be eternalism.
Don’t practice it as not existing, that would be nihilism.
Don’t practice it as mindCthat would be ‘only mind’ (Skr. cittamātra).
Don’t practice it in the middle [between the extremes], that would be grasping.
The practitioner does not exist, the practice does not exist,
the deity does not exist, and the mantra, too, does not exist.
The Exalted One taught
that you should abide perfectly with deity and mantra
in the nature that is free from proliferation.

And the protector of the world [Phagmodrupa] taught:

If, neither letting go nor not letting go, neither invoking nor not invoking,
you practice that where there is nothing to think or practice,
View, practice and realization become one and the same taste, indistinguishable.

The meaning of this well-expressed instruction is this:
Rest freshly, unfabricated, and in an unbound state.
You must practice uninterruptedly
in all kinds of conduct such as going, standing, lying down, and sitting.
The Precious One maintained that when realization arises in that,
the complete liberation is the guru’s blessing.

Furthermore, Vajradhara instructed on that meaning repeatedly in the [Hevajra-Tantra], saying:

That which cannot be expressed by others, the innate,
which cannot be found anywhere,
is to be known through the final moment of guru attendence,
and through one’s own merit.

[And furthermore]:

Previously, for the sake of the King of Samādhi
I have served billions of Buddhas
to the East of this kingdom.

[This] has been taught in detail in the Candrapradīpa[sūtra]. And Maitreya said:

The absolute truth of the renunciants
is to be realized through devotion alone.

And since this has been taught, I request you to undertake great efforts with regard to devotion [to the guru], for realization arises from devotion. This is the supreme intention of the precious one.

Should the Ḍākinīs of the three places
not be pleased with the profound words I have written,
I request them to tolerate it
and also to extend their blessings.

May all the sentient beings
reach as much excellence as there exists
on the pure grounds that match the excellence
as much as excellence exists
and as much as has been, will be, and is [obtained].

[This instruction] is complete.

[This translation has been completed by Jan-Ulrich Sobisch on February 13, 2009 and slightly improved on April 20, 2021.]

‘Jig-rten-mgon-po’s works, vol. 3, pp. 291‒294.
བླ་མའི་ཐུགས་དགོངས་ཟབ་མོ་ལྟ་སྒོམ་རྟོགས་པ་རོ་གཅིག་དབྱེར་མི་ཕྱེད་པ༎
ཨོཾ་སྭསྟི། གང་ཞིག་ཀུན་ནས་མུན་པ་གཏན་བཅོམ་ཞིང་།། འཁོར་བའི་འདམ་ནས་འགྲོ་བ་འདྲེན་མཛད་པ།། ཇི་སྙེད་ཇི་བཞིན་དོན་རྣམས་སྟོན་པ་ཡི།། བླ་མ་མཆོག་གི་ཞབས་ལ་སྤྱི་བོས་འདུད།། བསགས་པ་རབ་གྱུར་ཚོགས་ཆེན་བསགས་པ་ཡི།། སློབ་མ་བཟང་པོས་དད་ཅིང་གུས་པ་ཡིས།། གསོལ་བ་བཏབ་ནས་ཞུས་པའི་ཡི་གེ་འདི།། མོས་གུས་ཅན་གྱི་དོན་ཕྱིར་འབྲི་བར་བྱ།། སྤྱིར་བདག་ཅག་ཐམས་ཅད་ཀྱི་འདུག་ལུགས་ནི་འཆི་བ་མི་རྟག་པ་ཡིན། འཁོར་བ་དང་ངན་སོང་གི་སྡུག་བསྔལ་ལ་གཏིང་མཐའ་མེད་པ་ཡིན། འཁོར་བ་དང་ངན་སོང་གི་སྡུག་བསྔལ་ལས་རང་གཞན་ཐམས་ཅད་བརྒལ་བར་འདོད་པས། དང་པོར་བྱམས་པ་དང་སྙིང་རྗེ་བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་བསྒོམ། དེ་ནས་ལུས་ཡི་དམ་གྱི་ལྷ་བསྒོམ། བླ་མ་དམ་པ་སྙིང་གི་དབུས་སུ་བསམ། དེ་ནས་རང་གི་སེམས། ཡོད་པར་མི་བསྒོམ་རྟག་ལྟ་ཡིན།། མེད་པར་མི་བསྒོམ་ཆད་ལྟ་ཡིན།། སེམས་སུ་མི་བསྒོམ་སེམས་ཙམ་ཡིན།། དབུ་མར་མི་བསྒོམ་འཛིན་པ་ཡིན།། སྒོམ་པ་པོ་མེད་སྒོམ་པའང་མེད།། ལྷ་མེད་སྔགས་ཀྱང་ཡོད་མ་ཡིན།། སྤྲོས་པ་མེད་པའི་རང་བཞིན་ལ།། ལྷ་དང་སྔགས་ནི་ཡང་དག་གནས།། བཅོམ་ལྡན་འདས་ཀྱིས་གསུངས་པ་དང་།། འཇིག་རྟེན་མགོན་པོའི་ཞལ་སྔ་ནས།། གཏང་ཡང་མི་བཏང་དགུག་ཀྱང་མི་དགུག་སྟེ།། བསམ་དུ་མེད་པ་སྒོམ་དུ་མེད་པ་ཉིད་བསྒོམ་ན།། ལྟ་སྒོམ་རྟོགས་པ་རོ་གཅིག་དབྱེར་མི་ཕྱེད།། བཀའ་བསྩལ་ལེགས་པར་གསུངས་པ་འདི་ཡི་དོན།། སོ་མ་མ་བཅོས་ལྷུག་པ་ཉིད་དུ་ཞོག།། འགྲོ་འཆག་ཉལ་འདུག་སྤྱོད་ལམ་ཐམས་ཅད་དུ།། རྒྱུན་ཆད་མེད་པར་ཉམས་སུ་བླང་བར་བྱ།། དེ་ལ་རྟོགས་པ་སྐྱེ་ན་རྣམ་གྲོལ་བ།། བླ་མའི་བྱིན་རླབས་ཡིན་པ་རིན་ཆེན་བཞེད།། ་དེ་ཡང་རྡོ་རྗེ་འཛིན་པ་ཡིས།། གཞན་གྱིས་བརྗོད་མིན་ལྷན་ཅིག་སྐྱེས།། གང་དུ་ཡང་ནི་མི་རྙེད་དེ།། བླ་མའི་དུས་མཐའ་བསྟེན་པ་དང་།། རང་གི་བསོད་ནམས་ལས་ཤེས་བྱ།། དོན་འདིར་ཡང་ཡང་བཀའ་བསྩལ་གསུངས།། ངས་སྔོན་ཏིང་འཛིན་རྒྱལ་པོ་འདི་ཡི་ཕྱིར།། རྒྱལ་པོ་ཁབ་ཀྱི་ཤར་ཕྱོགས་འདི་ཉིད་དུ།། སངས་རྒྱས་བྱེ་བ་ཁྲག་ཁྲིག་རིམ་གྲོ་བྱས།། ཟླ་བ་སྒྲོན་མ་རྒྱ་ཆེར་གསུངས་པ་དང་།། མི་ཕམ་མགོན་པོའི་ཞལ་སྔ་ནས།། རང་བྱུང་རྣམས་ཀྱི་དོན་དམ་ནི།། དད་པ་ཉིད་ཀྱིས་རྟོགས་བྱ་ཡིན།། ཞེས་པ་ལ་སོགས་པ་གསུངས་པས། མངོན་པར་རྟོགས་པ་མོས་གུས་ལས་སྐྱེ་བ་ལགས་པས། མོས་གུས་ལ་ནན་ཏན་ཆེ་བར་མཛད་པར་ཞུ། རིན་པོ་ཆེ་ཡི་ཐུགས་དགོངས་མཆོག།། ཟབ་མོ་ཡི་གེར་བྲིས་པ་ལ།། གནས་གསུམ་མཁའ་འགྲོ་མ་མཉེས་ན།། བཟོད་པ་དམ་པ་བཞེས་ནས་ཀྱང་།། བྱིན་གྱིས་བརླབ་པར་མཛད་དུ་གསོལ།། འགྲོ་ཀུན་དགེ་བ་ཇི་སྙེད་ཡོད་པ་དང་།། བྱས་དང་བྱེད་འགྱུར་དེ་བཞིན་བྱེད་པ་དང་།། བཟང་པོ་ཇི་བཞིན་དེ་འདྲའི་ས་དག་ལ།། ཀུན་ནས་ཀུན་ཀྱང་བཟང་པོ་རེག་གྱུར་ཅིག།། རྫོགས་སོ༎ ༎

Notes
1. []See also the Samādhirāja Sūtra 9.27, which says: “Existence and nonexistence are extremes, and pure and impure, likewise, are extremes. Therefore, having abandoned such extremes, the wise one should not dwell in the middle either.”
2. []dGe ba’i bshes gnyen chos kyi blo gros la bskur ba’i gdams ngag, vol. 4, pp. 654‒661, p. 657: btang yang mi btang dgug kyang mi dgug ste/ /dmigs yul med par rten yang mi bca’ bar/ /bsgom du med pa gnyug ma’i ngang bzhag na/ /mtha’ dbus med pa nam mkha’ lta bur myong/ /.
3. []’Jig rten gsum mgon, bsTan bcos rdo rje ri zhes bya ba rgo na ba dang shākya dbang phyug gnyis la gnang ba, collected works, vol. 3, pp. 297–309, fol. 150v5. This interpretation builds on reading dus mtha’ (final moment) instead of dus thabs (timely method?) in the tantra.

(Deutsche Übersetzung weiter unten.)

The “Fivefold Path of Mahāmudrā” as we know it today was mainly shaped by Kunga Rinchen (1475‒1527), whose practice manual “Garland of Mahāmudrā” was translated by Khenchen Könchog Gyaltsen, and by Rigdzin Chökyi Dragpa’s disciple Könchog Trinlé Namgyal (17th c.), who wrote down his teachers oral instructions in the “Dharmakīrti Zhalung.” These manuals present the Fivefold Path as a fully ritualized form of practice with successive stages starting with a preliminary practice (Ngöndro) and individual rituals for practicing bodhicitta, yidam deity, guru yoga, mahāmudrā, and dedication.

But such a ritually structured set of practices cannot be found in the earlier writings of the lineage. In particularly, in Jigten Sumgön’s own collected writings, the Fivefold Path ist mentioned many times, but never as a ritual path. Instead, the “Fivefold Path” is presented as the fundamental principle of all practices of meditation: Whatever practice one performs, it should always be preceded by (1) the cultivation of the resolve for awakening (bodhicitta), through which (2) one’s body is manifested as the yidam deity, which is the basis for (3) practicing one’s guru in one’s heart or at the crown of one’s head, which culminates in (4) the practice of the mind free from mental activity (mahāmudrā). Finally, the virtuous roots of such practices should always be (5) dedicated for the benefit of the beings.

There is also no fixed yidam deity for this practice, although the manuals focus on Cakrasaṃvara as the main deity. In the early instructions of Jigten Sumgön, this is left open, and in the case where the practitioner does not yet have his own personal deity, Avalokiteśvara is recommended as the yidam deity of the Fivefold Path.

The following brief instruction by Jigten Sumgön is a typical early instruction on the Fivefold Path. There are many such instructions in his collected works, but this one is perhaps the most condensed presentation.

Quintessential Practice of Sūtra and Mantra: Essential Instruction of the Fivefold Path of Mahāmudrā

Generally, the certain cause for attaining perfect buddhahood is the resolve for awakening. Therefore, at all times and in every way, pledge to cultivate the resolve when you practice the root of great waves of virtue, when you get to any practice, and at the beginning of a practice session as follows:

“May all my mothers—the sentient beings who are as limitless as space—have happiness, be free from suffering, and attain the precious, supreme, and perfect awakening. For that purpose I will, until I reach buddhahood, bind body, speech, and mind to virtue. I will, until I die, bind body, speech, and mind to virtue. I will, until the same time tommorrow, bind body, speech, and mind to virtue”—thinking that, practice your body as your cherished deity. If you do not have one, practice my cherished deity, the lord of great compassion, the noble Avalokiteśvara, or any powerful lord whatsoever. Practice the excellent guru in your heart. At the time of death, practice him at the crown of your head, it is said.

Then, look at your own vigilant and clear awareness and “not seeing anything at the time of looking is seeing true reality.” Therefore, dwell in that state without any mental activity.

If your mind begins to stir again with high and low thoughts, transform your going, standing, lying, sitting, or any other conduct, so that through practice it becomes uninterrupted virtuous practice, the essence of being without thoughts, and the spontaneously accomplished nature. Then maintain that without interruption.

After you have produced the root of virtue or dwelled in meditative equipoise in the practice, recollect from time to time the root of virtue that has been accumulated by yourself and all sentient beings in the three times and the virtue that is existent [in the buddha nature of all beings]:

“May through this virtue that has been accumulated by myself and all sentient beings in the three times and that is existent I and all sentient beings quickly attain the precious, supreme, and perfect awakening.” Thereby the root of virtue is to be dedicated.

It is very important that you practice at all times uninterruptedly in that manner, guard the precious approximation vow1, and whichever lay vows from among the four roots you are able to maintain. Accordingly, the Exalted One said: “If you do not guard at least one rule, you are not part of my retinue.” Thus, knowing that all activities are without purpose if you do not belong to the retinue of our teacher, make efforts to guard disciplined conduct! This is complete.

1 “Approximation vows” (bsnyen gnas kyi sdom pa, Skt. upavasasaṃvara) are vows where lay persons practice the first four vows of ordination, relinquish alcohol, fancy clothing, jewelry, and high seats, and also cease taking meals after noon for one day to approximate the vows of ordination.

Der “Fünffache Pfad der Mahāmudrā”, wie wir ihn heute kennen, wurde hauptsächlich von Kunga Rinchen (1475-1527) geprägt, dessen Praxishandbuch “Girlande der Mahāmudrā” von Khenchen Könchog Gyaltsen übersetzt wurde, und von Rigdzin Chökyi Dragpas Schüler Könchog Trinlé Namgyal (17. Jh.), der die mündlichen Anweisungen seines Lehrers im “Dharmakīrti Zhalung” niederschrieb. Diese Handbücher präsentieren den Fünffachen Pfad als eine vollständig ritualisierte Form der Praxis mit aufeinanderfolgenden Stufen, beginnend mit einer vorbereitenden Praxis (Ngöndro) und individuellen Ritualen für die Praxis von Bodhicitta, Yidam-Gottheit, Guru-Yoga, Mahāmudrā und Widmung.

Aber eine solche rituell strukturierte Reihe von Praktiken ist in den früheren Schriften der Linie nicht zu finden. Insbesondere in Jigten Sumgöns eigenen Gesammelten Werken wird der Fünffache Pfad viele Male erwähnt, aber nie als ritueller Pfad. Stattdessen wird der “Fünffache Pfad” als das grundlegende Prinzip aller Meditationspraktiken dargestellt: Welche Praxis man auch immer ausführt, man sollte immer (1) die Kultivierung des Entschlusses zum Erwachen (bodhicitta) vorausgehen lassen, wodurch (2) der eigene Körper als Yidam-Gottheit manifestiert wird, was die Grundlage für (3) die Praxis des Gurus im Herzen oder auf der Kroe des Kopfes ist, was wiederum in (4) der Praxis des von geistiger Aktivität freien Geistes (mahāmudrā) gipfelt. Schließlich sollten die heilsamen Wurzeln solcher Praktiken immer (5) zum Nutzen der Wesen gewidmet werden.

Es gibt auch keine feste Yidam-Gottheit für diese Praxis, obwohl in den Handbüchern Cakrasaṃvara als Hauptgottheit genannt wird. In den frühen Unterweisungen von Jigten Sumgön wird dies offen gelassen, und für den Fall, dass der Praktizierende noch keine eigene persönliche Gottheit hat, wird Avalokiteśvara als Yidam-Gottheit des Fünffachen Pfades empfohlen.

Die folgende kurze Unterweisung von Jigten Sumgön ist eine typische frühe Unterweisung zum Fünffachen Pfad. Es gibt viele solcher Unterweisungen in seinen gesammelten Werken, aber diese hier ist vielleicht die komprimierteste Darstellung.

Quintessenz der Praxis von Sūtra und Mantra: Die Wesentliche Unterweisung des Fünffachen Pfades der Mahāmudrā

Im Allgemeinen ist die sichere Ursache für das Erreichen der vollkommenen Buddhaschaft der Entschluss zu Erwachen. Gelobe daher zu jeder Zeit und auf jede Weise wie folgt den Entschluss hervorzubrigen wenn du die Wurzel der großen Wellen des Heilsamen praktizierst, wenn du irgendeine Praxis übst, und zu Beginn einer jeden Praxissitzung:

“Mögen alle meine Mütter — die fühlenden Wesen, die so grenzenlos wie der Raum sind — Glück besitzen, frei von Leiden sein und das kostbare, höchste und vollkommene Erwachen erlangen; zu diesem Zweck werde ich, bis ich die Buddhaschaft erreicht habe, Körper, Rede und Geist an das Heilsame binden; ich werde, bis ich sterbe, Körper, Rede und Geist an das Heilsame binden; und ich werde, bis zur gleichen Zeit morgen, Körper, Rede und Geist an das Heilsame binden”—wenn du das denkst, übe deinen Körper als die Gottheit, die du am meißten schätzt. Wenn du keine solche Gottheit hast, praktiziere meine geschätzte Gottheit, den Herrn des großen Mitgefühls, den edlen Avalokiteśvara, oder irgendeinen anderen mächtigen Herrn. Praktiziere den ausgezeichneten Guru in deinem Herzen. Zur Zeit des Todes praktiziere ihn auf dem Scheitel deines Kopfes, so heißt es.

Dann schaue auf dein eigenes waches und klares Gewahrsein und “nichts zu sehen zum Zeitpunkt des Betrachtens ist das Sehen der wahren Wirklichkeit.” Verweile also in diesem Zustand ohne jegliche geistige Aktivität.

Wenn dein Geist wieder beginnt, sich mit hohen und niedrigen Gedanken zu bewegen, wandele dein Gehen, Stehen, Liegen, Sitzen oder jedes andere Verhalten so um, dass es durch die Praxis zu einer ununterbrochenen heilsamen Praxis wird, die Essenz des ohne Gedanken Seins und die spontan vollendete Natur. Dann halte dies ohne Unterbrechung aufrecht.

Nachdem du die Wurzel des Heilsamen hervorgebracht oder in der meditativen Ausgeglichenheit deiner Erfahrung verweilt hast, rufe dir von Zeit zu Zeit die Wurzel des Heilsamen, das von dir und allen fühlenden Wesen in den drei Zeiten angesammelt wurde, und des Heilsamen, das [in der Buddhanatur aller Wesen] vorhanden ist, ins Gedächtnis:

“Mögen ich und alle fühlenden Wesen durch dieses Heilsame, das von mir und allen fühlenden Wesen in den drei Zeiten angesammelt worden ist und das [in der Buddhanatur der Wesen] existent ist, schnell das kostbare, höchste und vollkommene Erwachen erlangen.” So ist die Wurzel des Heilsamen zu widmen.

Es ist sehr wichtig, dass man zu allen Zeiten ununterbrochen auf diese Weise praktiziert, das kostbare Annäherungsgelübde1 bewahrt und je nach Fähigkeit eines oder mehrere der vier Wurzelgelübde aufrecht erhält. Dementsprechend sagte der Erhabene: “Wenn du nicht mindestens eine Regel bewahrst, gehörst du nicht zu meinem Gefolge.” Da ihr also wisst, dass alle Betätigungen zwecklos sind, wenn ihr nicht zum Gefolge unseres Lehrers gehört, bemüht euch, diszipliniertes Verhalten zu bewahren! Dies ist vollständig.

1 “Annäherungsgelübde” (bsnyen gnas kyi sdom pa, Skt. upavasasaṃvara), sind die Gelübde, bei denen Laien für einen Tag die ersten vier Gelübde der Ordination praktizieren, auf Alkohol, besondere Kleidung, Schmuck und hohe Sitze verzichten und auch die Einnahme von Mahlzeiten nach dem Mittag einstellen, um sich den Gelübden der Ordination anzunähern.

Collected Works of Jigten Sumgon, vol. 3, p. 67‒70.

མདོ་སྔགས་ཉམས་ལེན་གྱི་ཉིང་ཁུ་ཕྱག་ཆེན་ལྔ་ལྡན་གྱི་ཁྲིད་སྙིང་བསྡུས༎ བླ་མ་དམ་པ་རྣམས་ལ་ཕྱག་འཚལ་ལོ། །སྤྱིར་རྫོགས་པའི་སངས་རྒྱས་ཐོབ་པར་བྱེད་པའི་རྒྱུ་ངེས་པ་བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་ཡིན་པས། དུས་དང་རྣམ་པ་ཐམས་ཅད་དང་། རླབས་པོ་ཆེའི་དགེ་བའི་རྩ་བ་བྱེད་པ་དང་། ཉམས་ལེན་གང་དུ་བསྣུན་པའི་དུས་དང་བསྒོམས་པའི་ཐུན་འགོ་ལ། སེམས་བསྐྱེད་པའི་དམ་བཅའ་འདི་ལྟར་བྱ་སྟེ། མ་ནམ་མཁའ་དང་མཉམ་པའི་སེམས་ཅན་ཐམས་ཅད་བདེ་བ་དང་ལྡན། སྡུག་བསྔལ་དང་བྲལ། བླ་ན་མེད་པ་ཡང་དག་པར་རྫོགས་པའི་བྱང་ཆུབ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ་ཐོབ་པར་བྱ། དེའི་ཆེད་དུ་སངས་མ་རྒྱས་ཀྱི་བར་དུ་ལུས་ངག་ཡིད་གསུམ་དགེ་བ་ལ་བཀོལ། མ་ཤིའི་བར་དུ་ལུས་ངག་ཡིད་གསུམ་དགེ་བ་ལ་བཀོལ། དུས་དེ་རིང་ནས་བཟུང་ནས་ཉི་མ་སང་ད་ཙམ་གྱི་བར་དུ་ལུས་ངག་ཡིད་གསུམ་དགེ་བ་ལ་བཀོལ་སྙམ་དུ་བསམས་ལ། རང་གི་ལུས་ཡི་དམ་གྱི་ལྷར་བསྒོམ། མེད་ན་ངའི་ཡི་དམ་གྱི་ལྷ། ཇོ་བོ་ཐུགས་རྗེ་ཆེན་པོ་རྗེ་བཙུན་སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས་དབང་ཕྱུག་གང་ཡང་རུང་བ་ཞིག་ཏུ་བསྒོམ། བླ་མ་དམ་པ་ཐུགས་ཀར་བསྒོམ། ནམ་འཆི་བའི་དུས་སུ་ནི་སྤྱི་བོར་བསྒོམ་པ་ཡིན་གསུངས། དེ་ནས་རང་གི་རིག་པ་རིག་རིག་ཏུར་ཏུར་པོ་འདི་ལ་བལྟས་ལ། བལྟས་པའི་དུས་སུ་གང་ཡང་མ་མཐོང་བ་དེ་ཁོ་ན་ཉིད་མཐོང་བའོ་ཞེས་པས། དེའི་ངང་ལ་ཅི་ཡང་ཡིད་ལ་མི་བྱེད་པར་བཞག། རྣམ་པར་རྟོག་པ་མཐོ་དམན་གྱིས་སེམས་རྣམ་པར་གཡེངས་ན། འགྲོ་འཆག་ཉལ་འདུག་གམ། སྤྱོད་ལམ་བསྒྱུར་ནས་བསྒོམས་པས་རྒྱུན་ཆད་མེད་པའི་དགེ་སྦྱོར། རྣམ་རྟོག་མེད་པའི་ངོ་བོ། ལྷུན་གྱིས་གྲུབ་པའི་རང་བཞིན་དུ་འོང་བ་ཡིན་པས། དེ་རྒྱུན་ཆད་མེད་པར་བསྐྱང་། དགེ་བའི་རྩ་བ་བྱས་པའི་རྗེས་སམ། ཐུགས་དམ་ལ་མཉམ་པར་བཞག་པའི་རྗེས་ལ། སྐབས་སྐབས་སུ་བདག་དང་སེམས་ཅན་ཐམས་ཅད་ཀྱིས་དུས་གསུམ་དུ་བསགས་ཤིང་ཡོད་པའི་དགེ་བའི་རྩ་བ་དྲན་པར་བྱས། བདག་དང་སེམས་ཅན་ཐམས་ཅད་ཀྱིs་དུས་གསུམ་དུ་བསགས་ཤིང་ཡོད་པའི་དགེ་བའི་རྩ་བ་འདིས། བདག་དང་སེམས་ཅན་ཐམས་ཅད་མྱུར་དུ་བླ་ན་མེད་པར་ཡང་དག་པར་རྫོགས་པའི་བྱང་ཆུབ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ་ཐོབ་པར་གྱུར་ཅིག་ཅེས། དགེ་བའི་རྩ་བ་བསྔོ་བར་བྱའོ། །དུས་རྒྱུན་ཆད་མེད་པར་ཚུལ་དེ་ལྟར་ཉམས་སུ་བླང་ཞིང་། བསྙེན་གནས་ཀྱི་སྡོམ་པ་རིན་པོ་ཆེ་བསྲུང་བ་དང་། རྩ་བ་བཞི་ལས་གང་ཐུབ་ཐུབ་ཀྱི་དགེ་བསྙེན་གྱི་སྡོམ་པ་སྲུང་བ་གལ་ཆེ་སྟེ། དེ་ལྟར་ཡང་བཅོམ་ལྡན་འདས་ཀྱིས། ཁྲིམས་གཅིག་ཙམ་ཡང་མི་བསྲུང་ན་ངའི་འཁོར་དུ་མ་གཏོགས་སོ། །ཞེས་གསུངས་པས་སྟོན་པའི་འཁོར་དུ་མ་གཏོགས་ན་བྱས་པ་ཐམས་ཅད་དོན་མེད་པར་ཤེས་པར་བྱས་ནས། ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་བསྲུང་བ་ལ་འབད་པར་བྱའོ། །རྫོགས་སོ༎་༎

This prayer covers the whole path of mahāmudrā from the common outer preliminaries up to the special dedication, ending in verses of one-pointed devotion. It was composed by the first Drikung Chungtsang Rinpoche, Rigdzin Chökyi Dragpa (1595-1659). ♦ 1

Although I, a commoner of little mind, have trained the thought that the leasures and endowments are hard to obtain, I have wasted my life! Please look compassionately on me from afar!

Although I, a commoner of little mind, have practiced the thought of impermanence and death, I have only ever grasped as permanent that which is conditioned. Please look compassionately on me from afar!

Although I, a commoner of little mind, have practiced the thought that cause and result never fail, I have only ever confused what to accept and what to reject. Please look compassionately on me from afar!

Although I, a commoner of little mind, have practiced seeing saṃsāra as suffering, ♦ 2 I have only ever taken the path of the lower realms. Please look compassionately on me from afar!

Although I, a commoner of little mind, have maintained the prātimokṣa as my vows, I am separated from the mind of renunciation. Please look compassionately on me from afar!

Although I, a commoner of little mind, practiced seeing all beings as my parents, I have only ever brought forth attachment and rejection for my friends and enemies. Please look compassionately on me from afar!

Although I, a commoner of little mind, have practiced love and compassion, ♦ 3 I have only ever brought forth hatred and ill will. Please look compassionately on me from afar!

Although I, a commoner of little mind, have practiced the aspiration and completion of the resolve for awakening, I have only ever pursued my own happiness. Please look compassionately on me from afar!

Although I, a commoner of little mind, have practiced my body as the body of the deity, I have only ever brought forth attachment to ordinary appearances. Please look compassionately on me from afar!

Although I, a commoner of little mind, have counted the mantras to be recited, I have merely wasted the wind of my life force. Please look compassionately on me from afar!

Although I, a commoner of little mind, have practiced the samādhi that is like a reflection, I have only ever thought of it as something seizable. ♦ 4 Please look compassionately on me from afar!

Although I, a commoner of little mind, have dissolved the visualization according to the gradual and the sudden method, ♦ 5 this has remained only a mechanical procedure. Please look compassionately on me from afar!

Although I, a commoner of little mind, have practiced my own mind as being free from mental proliferation, I have only ever cultivated an attitude. Please look compassionately on me from afar!

Although I, a commoner of little mind, have practiced not grasping whatever appears, I have only ever superimposed my awareness on it. ♦ 6 Please look compassionately on me from afar!

Although I, a commoner of little mind, have practiced the inseparable union as beyond mind, I have only ever fallen into the extreme of dualistic fixation. Please look compassionately on me from afar!

Although I, a commoner of little mind, have practiced the fundamental nature as something unfabricated, I have only ever added the unfabricated. ♦ 7 Please look compassionately on me from afar!

Although I, a commoner of little mind, have dedicated completely free from the three components, ♦ 8 I have only ever striven for glory. Please look compassionately on me from afar!

Although I, a commoner of little mind, have practiced one-pointed devotion, I have only ever been carried away by hopes for the pleasant and fears of the disagreable. Please look compassionately on me from afar!

From the depths of my heart, I, a commoner of little mind, pray to the refuge lord of this and all future lives, the physician who can cure the chronic disease of samsāra, the courageous one who conquers the afflictions that are the enemy, the sun that dispels the darkness of ignorance, the moon that protects me from the heat of suffering, the jewel that fulfills all my needs, desires, and hopes, and the guru who is a cure for everything!

Please look upon me quickly with compassion and grant me the blessing within effortlessness!

Grant me the feast of the spontaneous attainment of the twofold purpose on this seat! Please do not let the hope of this fortunate devotee go unfulfilled! May my devotion not be wasted uselessly! May my prayer not go unheard! May I be introduced to equanimity through your compassion!

You are the lord of refuge of this, the next life, and the intermediate state! Apart from you there is no other! No matter what happiness and sorrow, salvation and disaster may arise, there is no hope for me except you! Please look compassionately upon me from afar! Guru! Give me your attention! Guru! Give me your attention!

Notes
1. [] “Four Session [Guru]-Yoga: Sea of Blessings,” Collected Works of Rigdzin Chökyi Dragpa, vol. 14 (pha), pp.321‒330, this prayer on 325‒327.

2. [] These four, the thoughts regarding (1) the leasures and endowments, (2) impermanence and death, (3) cause and result, and (4) the sufferings of saṃsāra constitute the four outer common preliminaries that all Buddhists share in their practice.

3. [] These three, renunciation, seeing all beings as one’s parents, and practicing love and compassion are the basis for cultivating the resolve for awakaning (bodhicitta).

4. [] Practicing samādhi as something seizable means that one is attached to the arising of bliss, luminosity, and non-thought from samādhi. That attachment is only a cause of saṃsāra.

5. [] The gradual dissolving is the procedure where the outer world is dissolved into the palace of the deity, the palace into the body of the deity, the body into the heart syllable, and the syllable gradually into emptiness. The sudden dissolving turns the visualization abruptly into non-thought.

6. [] Such an artificial superimposing of awareness on apearances is only another form of grasping.

7. [] In his commentary on the Single Intention, Rigdzin Chökyi Dragpa says that some mantra practitioners use the “emptiness mantra” (“oṃ śūnyatā …”) “to empty” outer and inner phenomena. Thereby, however, they remain within duality by applying the emptying mantra with their mind to an object, to their consciousness, and to their bodies. Thereby, they mentally create the trap of fundamental nature, into which they fall.

8. [] In mahāmudrā practice, the “three components” (Tib. ’khor gsum, Skt. trimaṇḍala) of dedication have to be canceled out. The three components characterize the functioning of the dualistic mind. In the case of the perfection of giving or of dedication, the first of these three is the notion of a subject, which is the agent or acting entity. The second is an object, which is the patient (or recipient) of the action/dedication. The third is the action of giving or dedication proper.

Sorry, this time only German:

Ich habe jetzt unten rechts bei den PDF-Downloads einen Link zur deutschen Übersetzung von Jigten Sumgöns “Kühlende Sandelholz-Mala” eingefügt.

Diese Instruktion Jigten Sumgöns war der erste Text, den ich zusammen mit meinem Mentor Ngawang Tsering in den achziger Jahren gelesen habe (tatsächlich fand ich noch Dateien zu diesem Text von 1992!). Ich habe den Text viele Male überarbeitet, jetzt lasse ich ihn endlich los. Der Text ist ein wunderbares Beispiel für die Art und Weise, wie Jigten Sumgön öffentliche Belehrungen gab: Immer mit direktem Bezug zur Praxis, und immer ohne in verschiedene Fahrzeuge zu unterscheiden. Für Jigten Sumgön gab es nur einen Pfad, nämlich den, der zur vollkommenen Buddhaschaft führt.

Viel Spaß beim Lesen!

Karma Chagme (1613-1678) composed a text called “How to Guard the Three Vows: The Sun that Dispels the Darkness,” which is the fifth chapter of his famous “Mountain Dharma” (Ri chos mtshams kyi zhal gdams). You can find the whole translation of this chapter in the download section of this blog (scroll down and see the right hand side).

Here, I will present his summary of all vows from that chapter. Instead of making footnotes (as in my translation), the notes are here integrated into the text in blue print.

Summary of All Vows
The three vows of refuge, the five of the householders,
Most basic are the “vows of refuge.” They are presented in three groups of three rules each. After one has taken refuge, one observes the following: 1a) One continually strives to worship the three jewels, b) one does not abandon the three jewels even at the cost of oneʼs life, c) one recollects the qualities of the three jewels and continually practices taking refuge; 2a) one does not turn to other deities, b) harm other beings and c) rely on non-Buddhist teachers, 3) one worships the images and representations of a) the Buddhas, b) the teachings and c) the community, even if they only consist of mere clay figures, single letters or shreds of robes.
As a householder, one can maintain five vows or less. These are avoiding 1) killing, 2) stealing, 3) sexual misconduct, 4) lying and 5) the consumption of intoxicating substances. Either two or three of these are to be observed (but one can also take all five). In the so-called approximation vow (upavasasaṃvara), one enters into all five commitments for the duration of one day, but “sexual misconduct” is replaced by chastity, and there are other additional vows such as avoiding elevated seating, singing, dancing, jewelry, perfume, and “untimely meals.” Literally, upavasa means “approach” or “approximation,” i.e., a lay person approximates the lifestyle of the ordained ones for the period of one day.

the ten vows of ordained novices,
These are the four roots of the vinaya: celibacy, not killing, not stealing, not lying about spiritual accomplishments, and additional vows such as avoiding intoxication, elevated seating, singing, dancing, jewelry, and perfume.

the two hundred and fifty-three vows of fully ordained monks,
In addition to the ten vows of the novices, the fully ordained ones have to follow a large catalogue of vows concerning the life in the sangha and regulating the contact with the layity. A good and complete documentation was published by Charles Prebish (1975). Buddhist Monastic Discipline: The Sanskrit Prātimokṣa Sūtras of the Mahāsāṃghikas and Mūlasarvāstivādins. University Park Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press. (Maybe you can ask someone to send you a PDF?)

the vows of the bodhisattvas,
There are different sets of vows for the bodhisattvas. Candragomin has summarized them in his Twenty Verses (Bodhisattvasaṃvaraviṃśaka 6‒7, translation by Mark Tatz), forming the Yogācara tradition of the bodhisattva vows:

(6) With attachment to gain and respect,
Praising oneself and deprecating another;
Stingily not giving Dharma and wealth
To the suffering, [poor] and forsaken.
(7) Heedless of another’s confession,
Striking him out of anger;
Rejecting the Greater Vehicle,
And showing what appears like good Dharma.

The Twenty Verses are a summary of the ethics chapter of the Bodhisattvabhūmi.

the four white and the four black dharmas
that are to be accepted and rejected,
The four white dharmas: (1) Never consciously telling lies, ranging from “even if it costs one’s life” to “even for fun;” (2) always maintaining an altruistic motivation, never deviating from it, and not deceiving the beings; (3) cultivating the certainty that all bodhisattvas are buddhas and praising them; (4) motivating the beings regarding the unsurpassable awakening and the great vehicle, without giving up the lesser vehicles.
The four black Dharmas: (1) To deceive the guru; (2) to slander those who have cultivated the resolve for complete awakening; (3) to have no faith in spiritual merit and repent virtuous actions; (4) To deceive the beings.

the eighteen and the twenty transgressions,
According to the Madhyamakas, depending on which basic text they follow, there are eighteen or more root vows of the bodhisattvas. In his Śikṣasamuccaya, Śāntideva cites the Ākāśagarbhasūtra with nineteen transgressions, the first six of which apply to “kings and ministers.” The remaining twelve roots are for beginners and average bodhisattvas:

(1) To teach emptiness to the unprepared so that they lose faith;
(2) to induce someone to give up the great vehicle;
(3) to induce someone gifted only for the small vehicle to enter the great vehicle;
(4) to believe that one cannot remove the stains in the small vehicle;
(5) out of greed for wealth and fame, to praise oneself and disrespect others;
(6) falsely claiming that one has realized emptiness;
(7) inducing others to punish a monk;
(8) inducing a monk to abandon his meditation;
(9) giving up the decision to awaken;
(10-12) being stingy, angry, or hypocritical.

Only one root is taught for those bodhisatvas who are particularly blunt, namely at least not to give up the resolve for awakening.

the fourteen root pledges of the mantra vows
There are countless pledges in the different tantras and tantra classes. After one has been initiated into one of the highest tantras, the fourteen root transgressions mentioned here are especially important:

(1) To disrespect the vajra master;
(2) to disobey the Buddha’s instructions;
(3) to be angry with oneʼs vajra siblings;
(4) to give up love, even for a single being;
(5) to lose bodhicitta;
(6) to disregard religious teachings;
(7) to reveal secrets to the immature;
(8) to disregard one’s psycho-physical constituents as something ordinary;
(9) to disregard that which is pure by nature;
(10) to feel affection for the wicked;
(11) to construct mental concepts of the ultimate truth;
(12) to cause someone to lose faith;
(13) to reject the substances of the pledges of mantra;
(14) to disrespect women.

and the eight grave transgressions,
The eight serious violations are:

(1) To engage (in the activities of the mantra) with women who have nopledges;
(2) to get into conflict with others during the activities of the mantra;
(3) to accept the external and internal nectar of the pledges from women who are not qualified in the sense of the mantra;
(4) not to teach mantra although it has been requested by qualified students;
(5) to answer qualified questions about mantra evasively;
(6) to spend more than one week with those who despise the great vehicle;
(7) to consider oneself a mantra adept if one knows only some of the rituals of the stage of cultivation;
(8) to reveal secrets to unqualified persons.

the roots of the body, speech, and mind of the Nyingmapas
and the twenty-five branches.
These were taught in detail as the hundred thousands of millions.

In brief, the roots of all these vows are as follows:
The entire prātimokṣa is included in avoiding harm for others
together with the mental basis for that.
The entire system of the bodhisattva vows is included in bringing benefit to others
together with the mental basis for that.
The entire system of the pledges of mantra is included in one-pointed devotion to the guru.

If you say: “In detail, it is too detailed, in brief, it is too brief;
but what is practiced concretely?”
[I reply]: Preserve the four roots as if they were your life,
abandon alcohol and meat [of animals killed] for your sake, etc.—
these are the purest vows of this day and age.
They are also of utmost importance for the vows of the bodhisattvas and mantra.

Whatever activities of virtue accumulation one pursues,
the core of the entire training of the bodhisattvas
is the cultivation of the resolve to awaken for the sake of all beings,
and to make wishes for the dedication of the root of virtue
for the benefit of all beings
and for attaining perfect awakening.
The meaning of this [is explained in the sutra of] detailed advice to the king.

Whoever your root guru is
—whether ordinary being or a buddha—
think of him as being inseparable from the lord of the [buddha] family
on the crown of your head.
This is the pledge of the guru’s body.

Practice whatever is appropriate for you:
The deity of meditation with your body, recitations through your speech,
holding the breath or vajra recitation.
This is the pledge of the speech of the deity of meditation.

View your mind as emptiness, mahamudra,
perform as best as you can on days such as the tenth of the month timely offerings,
the tantric feast, and torma offerings!
Never explain to those who hold wrong views the vital points of mantra.
This is the pledge of the dakini’s heart.

Continue your efforts regarding the offering of tormas and the torma
of the twenty-ninth day of the last month.
The twenty-ninth day of the last month is the penultimate day of the Tibetan year. The focus of this torma offering ritual is to come to a conclusion with the past year by repelling negativity and misfortune and thus averting it for the next year. The ritual is traditionally performed in all households, monasteries, and retreat places all over Tibet on this day.

Perform as best you can on the appropriate days of the year, the appeasements
and petitions, and the feast offering.
Since one cannot avoid mistakes in ritual practice regarding the protectors, etc., “amendments” must be made on certain days to appease these deities. “Petitions” are requests to the deities regarding fortunate conditions in the future. The “feast offering” is one of the obligations one has towards the yidam deity.

In it are contained the pledges concerning the gods of wealth [who provide] qualities
and the protectors of the teaching [who engage in various] activities.

Watch at all times the essence of your mind.
That is the pledge of liberating one’s mental continuum through realization.

From time to time, train in the visualizations of the compassionate exchange
of yourself and others,
Literally, the “sending” of one’s happiness to others and the “taking” upon oneself the suffering of others.

fulfill the hopes of your trainees concerning empowerments,
transmissions, instructions, and so forth.
This is the pledge of bringing the mental continuum of others to maturity
through compassion.

Make aspirations and dedications that everyone who is connected
[to you] through seeing, hearing, remembering, and touching,
may be born in the buddha field of great bliss.
This is the pledge of the great vehicle that samsara is to be completely emptied.

In this way, the pledges are differentiated and summarized.
They are clearly differentiated and easy to practice.

[Colophon]
This was taught by Rāga Asya (Karma Chagme) during the noon session
of the twenty-fourth day of the eighth month of the horse year.
The text literally says “the ninth day of the red half of the month,” which refers to the second half of the month with a waning moon. Since only the animal sign is mentioned, three years are most likely, namely 1642, 1654, or 1666.

It was written down by Tsöntrü Gyatso, who had requested the teaching.
If there are mistakes in it, I confess them before the scholars.
May all beings bring the three vows to perfection through this virtue.

[This translation was made in August 2000 in Hamburg and slightly revised in 2020 by Jan-Ulrich Sobisch.]

When different Buddhist groups form an association, e.g. in a counry, the question of a common definition of Buddhism is sometimes raised. The idea of that is obviously to come up with a kind of essence that is something like the least common denominator, which includes all and doesn’t reject anyone. I find this difficult, not only because “essentialism” has such a bad name these days.

Someone who tries to give an answer that is based on the teachings is Dzongsar Khyentse Rinpoche. He says (Lions Roar, January 12, 2017):

Buddhism is distinguished by four characteristics, or ‘seals.’ If all these four seals are found in a path or a philosophy, it can be considered the path of the Buddha.

What are these four seals? They are, as he summarizes:

– All compounded things are impermanent.
– All emotions are painful. This is something that only Buddhists would talk about. Many religions worship things like love with celebration and songs. Buddhists think, “This is all suffering.”
– All phenomena are empty; they are without inherent existence. This is actually the ultimate view of Buddhism; the other three are grounded on this third seal.
– The fourth seal is that nirvana is beyond extremes.

I have no problem with any of the four seals, and also not with putting them together.  But I am uncomfortable with the idea that when any of these are not “found in a path or a philosophy,” it cannot be “considered a path of the Buddha.” Does he really mean to exclude people who do not follow the teaching of emptiness? And isn’t “nirvana is beyond extremes” very Mahayana? Moreover, is someone, like me, who has not fully grasped that “emotions are painful” and that “phenomena are empty” not a Buddhist, or not a complete Buddhist?

The more I think about it, the more I become aware that one perhaps should not try to define what Buddhism is, but rather talk about what people, who consider themselves followers of the Buddha, do.

What would that be?

All Buddhists seem to be striving—although to different degrees—in three fields: meditative practice, cognition, and conduct. With “cognition” I mean that we try to train our consciousness to recognize errors and understand how these errors function. The most basic error, according to the Buddha, is that we ignore something that actually causes suffering and often even hold it to be joyful (most prominently: the self). Through training cognition in many ways, Buddhists try to identify that error and to stop its proliferation in our mind. As soon as one has even only a little understanding of that, one can start to change one’s conduct and to integrate that understanding in meditative practice, applying antidotes against that error and habitualizing our improved understanding of reality. In that way, conduct and meditative practice become aids for an improved cognition until awakening is attained.

Okay, let’s test this against my own criticism above.

Does this formulate a philosophical position that is not shared by all Buddhists? Is this perhaps a position that ordinary people like me are far from understanding properly? The only position formulated above is that Buddhists try to recognize errors and seek to abandon them. If that would not be the case, one would not do anything.—That is why I try to describe Buddhism as something one does rather than what philosophical position one holds. Does this exclude people from being recognized as Buddhists? I hope not. Even the most humble persons who “only” practice by making offerings to the Sangha do that because they perceive a fault in this life, hope for improvement, and actually do something about it: They make an offering and put themselves in a humble state of mind.

Is this perhaps over-inclusive? Not if we agree on one point, namely that Buddhists are unique in perceiving existence—at least to some degree—as suffering and seek to end that suffering. As Khyentse Rinpoche says:

All emotions are painful. This is something that only Buddhists would talk about. Many religions worship things like love with celebration and songs. Buddhists think, “This is all suffering.”

I wouldn’t narrow it down so much on emotion alone, but I do agree that it is unique in the world of religions that the Buddha has described existence—including in heavenly realms—as ultimately only suffering. But here we have the problem again that this is an ideal view that most people have not yet fully realized. Yet Buddhists do seem to be attracted to the view of the entire existence as suffering. That is a strange attraction since from the point of view of its competetive ability in the market of religions it seems to be a huge disadvantage—it seems so negative. Yet it still appeals to people. Perhaps, if we now also look through the lense of what is, we could say that Buddhism is about existence as suffering and that people are, for whichever reason, somehow attracted to that idea. To me, this attraction is one of the big misterys about Buddhism.

Jigten Sumgön explains in the Single Intention that this is so because of Buddha nature: Everyone possesses it, and because it is pure, all beings have at least the capacity to recognize the huge gap between that purity within them and existence as it actually is. The rest of this blog entry will now be devoted to how the Single Intention explains the fact that people are drawn to a teaching that speaks so extensively about suffering.

The early commenator of the Single Intention, Doré Sherab, explains this point in the context of vajra statement 6.13. Here, Buddha nature, the nature of mind, and mahamudra are treated as synonymous terms. He explains that since every sentient being posesses the Buddha nature, which is the mahamudra of the ground, they gradually understand more and more about the nature of suffering and thereby are more and more attracted to taking up disciplined conduct in all of its forms until Buddhahood is attained. He thereby draws our attention to the analogy between Buddha nature/mahamudra on the one hand, and disciplined conduct on the other: Because of the purity of the first we are disgusted by samsara and strive with the help of the purity of the other, i.e., disciplined conduct, for awakening and Buddhahood. The passage reads in the Dosherma (section 6.13):

“[Discipined conduct and mahamudra] are one by being analoguous. In general, the sentient beings who revolve in samsara have not realized true reality. Therefore, based on grasping a self, they accumulate karma, through which, as a result, they revolve in the three realms. But if they realize their mind, they are free from grasping a self, and thereby they are also without an object of desire or hatred that could arise. Since this freedom from desire and hatred is pure disciplined conduct, [discipined conduct and mahamudra] are one by being analoguous. For ordinary sentient beings too, even though they have not realized their mind, discipined conduct and mahamudra are one, as expressed in the Uttaratantra (1.40):

If there were no buddha element,
there would be no aversion to suffering,
and there would be neither a desire to pass beyond sorrow,
nor an effort and the aspiration toward it.

“From the perspective of the gradual path, having understood that the lower realms are suffering, there arises the striving for the higher realms. Even guarding merely the approximation vows is the power of mahamudra. Similarly, understanding that everything below the peak of existence is suffering, a mind arises that strives for what is higher than that. Thus, guarding the disciplined conduct up to the vows of full ordination too is the power of mahamudra. Understanding that all of samsara is suffering one sets one’s mind on the two lower awakenings,♦ 1 and that too is the power of mahamudra. Seeing all sentient beings as one’s kind mothers one has the urge to obtain Buddhahood. That too is the power of mahamudra. For instance, when the sun rises, by the rising of the first light blue dawn, the whitish dawn, and then the reddish dawn, it becomes ever so slightly more radiant, and then gradually, up to daybreak, it becomes very bright. This is all due to the power of the sun.”

Notes
1. [] Shravaka and pratyekabuddhahood.

Note for English readers: I describe here the style of spiritual songs, where a special rhythm is produced through changes in the patern of heavy and light syllables. My German translation of Nuden Dorje’s text tries to follow his rhythmical pattern. Since I am not a native speaker of English, I have not tried to achieve the same effect in my English translation of the text. For the English translation of the guru-realization, please scroll to the bottom of the page.

Dieser kurze Text wurde von Drikung Nuden Dorje (1849‒1902) verfasst. Er ist auch bekannt als Lho Bongtül und Lho Jedrung und sticht heraus als jemand, der Überlieferungen aus allen Schulen erihelt und weitergab. In dieser kurzen “Guru-Verwirklichung” verwendet er eine Grundrhythmus, wie man ihn auch aus den spirituellen Liedern von Jigten Sumgön und anderen Meistern kennt. Normalerweise wechseln sich in sieben-silbrigen Versen die schweren und leichten Silben ab (schwer: ‿ leicht:__ ):

dag la dang bar je pé dra
‿   __   ‿    __   ‿  __  ‿

In spirituellen Gesängen findet man jedoch oft Doppelsilben, die den Rhythmus bestimmen, wie z.B. in Jigten Sumgön’s Lied an Rinchen Drag:

bu nyön dang sön dang rin chen grags//
‿    __     __       ‿      __    ‿     __     ‿

Genau diesen Rhythmus verwendet Nuden Dorje auch in diesem Text bis zum Mantra—danach wechselt er dann in den “normalen” Rhythmus. Heute, am 803ten Tag des Mahaparinirvana Jigten Sumgöns, habe in meiner Übersetzung versucht, diesen Grundrhythmus wiederzugeben:

Auf meinem Kopf ein Löwensitz
‿     __    __     ‿      __   ‿  __  ‿

Da man im Deutschen oft mehr Silben braucht, habe ich gelegentlich auch an anderer Stelle eine Doppelsilbe eingefügt, z.B. so:

gütiger Wurzellama mit dem
‿ __ __  ‿  __   ‿  __   __    ‿

So etwas finden wir gelegentlich auch bei Jigten Sumgön:

ka lo tä chig dug gam mi dug som
‿ __ __   ‿     __     __    ‿    __   ‿

Manchmal hat Jigten Sumgön sogar drei leichte Silben hintereinander:

dag nal jor pa ri trö kyi glön pa trim
‿    __  __   __  ‿ __   __    ‿    __   ‿

Hier nun Nuden Dorjes Text mit Übersetzung:

སྐྱོབ་པ་འཇིག་རྟེན་གསུམ་གམོན་གྱི་བླ་སྒྲུབ་ཤིན་ཏུ་བསྡུས་པ་བཞུགས་སོ༎

Sehr kurze Guru–Verwirklichung des Kyobpa Jigten Sumgön

བདག་ཐ་མལ་སྤྱི་གཙུག་སེང་གེ་དང་༎ གདན་པདྨ་ཟླ་བ་བརྩེགས་པའི་སྟེང་༎

Auf meinem Kopf ein Löwensitz || darauf auf Lotussitz und Mond ||

རྗེ་དྲིན་ཅན་རྩ་བའི་བླ་མ་དང་༎ སྐྱབས་སངས་རྒྱས་ཐམས་ཅད་འདུས་པའི་སྐུ༎

gütiger Wurzellama mit dem || Körper der alle Zuflucht und ||
Buddhas in sich vereinigt hat, || der allen Schutz in sich vereint; ||

མགོན་གཅིག་བསྡུས་མཉམ་མེད་སྐྱོབ་པ་རྗེ༎ སྐུ་དཀར་དམར་མདངས་ལྡན་སྐྱིལ་ཀྲུང་བཞུགས༎

Schützer, der unvergleichlich ist, || rot-weißer Körper in hellem Glanz, ||
Beine im Lotussitz gekreuzt, || Hände hälst du in der Geste der ||

ཕྱག་མཉམ་བཞག་ཆོས་གོས་རྣམ་གསུམ་གསོལ༎ དབུ་སྒོམ་ཞྭ་མཚན་དང་དཔེ་བྱད་ལྡན༎

Meditation im Schoß und trägst || dreifache Dharma-Roben und ||
Meditationshut und bist mit den || Merkmal’n verseh’n, ich meditiere ||

ཡིད་རྩེ་གཅིག་མོས་པས་བཞུགས་པར་བསྒོམ༎ ཕྱོགས་གཡས་གཡོན་རྩ་བརྒྱུད་བླ་མས་བསྐོར༎

hingebungsvoll, ohne Ablenkung. || Du bist umgeben von all den ||
Gurus der Linie, rechts und links. ||

བདག་མོས་གུས་གདུང་བས་གསོལ་འདེབས་ན༎ རྗེ་ཁྱེད་ཀྱི་ཐུགས་རྗེའི་སྤྱན་གྱིས་གཟིགས༎

Wenn ich nun mit Respekt und voll || Hingabe zu dir bete, dann ||
schau mit dem Auge des Mitgefühls! ||

གནས་རིགས་དྲུག་འཁོར་བའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ་འདི༎ ཡིད་རྩེ་གཅིག་གཡེང་མེད་དྲན་པར་ཤོག།

Denk an uns Wesen in den sechs || Daseinsbereichen voller Leid! ||
Schau konzentriert, ohne Ablenkung! ||

སེམས་བསྐྱེད་རྫོགས་ཟུང་འཇུག་གི་གདམས་པ་འདིས༎ སེམས་ཆོས་སྐུར་རྟོགས་པར་བྱིན་གྱིས་རློབས༎

Dies ist die Instruktion, wonach || in meinem Geist die Erzeugungsstufe ||
mit der Vollendung vereinigt ist. ||Möge mein Geist gesegnet sein ||
in der Vollendung des Dharmakāya! ||

མ་མཁའ་ཁྱབ་སེམས་ཅན་མ་ལུས་པ༎ རྗེ་སྐྱོབ་པའི་ཐུགས་དང་དབྱེར་མེད་ཤོག།

Mögen nun alle Wesen, die || früher einmal meine Mutter waren, ||
eins mit dem Geist dieses Schützers sein! ||

ཨོཾ་རཏྣ་ཤྲཱི་ཧཱུཾ།

Oṃ Ratna Shrī Hūng.

མཐར་ནི་བླ་མ་འོད་དུ་ཞུ༎ རང་གིས་སེམས་དང་བླ་མའི་ཐུགས༎

Schließlich schmilzt der Guru und || löst sich auf in Licht und dann ||
wird der Geist des Gurus mit || meinem Geist vereinigt, wie ||

དབྱེར་མེད་ཆུ་ལ་ཆུ་བཞག་བཞིན༎ འཛིན་མེད་ཕྱག་རྒྱ་ཆེན་པོར་སྐྱོང་།

Wasser sich mit Wasser mischt. || Diesen Mahāmudrā-Geist ||
halte ich ohne ihn festzuhalten! ||

ཞེས་པ་འདིའང་ལྷོ་རྗེ་དྲུང་བས་སྦྱར་བའོ༎

(Dieses wurde von Lho Jedrung [Nüden Dorje] verfasst.)
(Am 14.6.2020, dem 803ten Mahaparinirvana von Jigten Sumgön, von Jan-Ulrich Sobisch in Hamburg übersetzt.)

སྐྱོབ་པ་འཇིག་རྟེན་གསུམ་གམོན་གྱི་བླ་སྒྲུབ་ཤིན་ཏུ་བསྡུས་པ་བཞུགས་སོ༎

Very short guru realization of Kyobpa Jigten Sumgön
by Nüden Dorje

བདག་ཐ་མལ་སྤྱི་གཙུག་སེང་གེ་དང་༎ གདན་པདྨ་ཟླ་བ་བརྩེགས་པའི་སྟེང་༎

I am in my ordinary form. On my crown is a lion seat, lotus and moon, and upon that

རྗེ་དྲིན་ཅན་རྩ་བའི་བླ་མ་དང་༎ སྐྱབས་སངས་རྒྱས་ཐམས་ཅད་འདུས་པའི་སྐུ༎

the benevolent root lama with the body that is the union of all refuge and buddhas.

མགོན་གཅིག་བསྡུས་མཉམ་མེད་སྐྱོབ་པ་རྗེ༎ སྐུ་དཀར་དམར་མདངས་ལྡན་སྐྱིལ་ཀྲུང་བཞུགས༎

He unites all protection. Protector! You are incomparable, your red and white body shines brightly, and your legs are crossed in the lotus position.

ཕྱག་མཉམ་བཞག་ཆོས་གོས་རྣམ་གསུམ་གསོལ༎ དབུ་སྒོམ་ཞྭ་མཚན་དང་དཔེ་བྱད་ལྡན༎

You hold your hands in the lap in the gesture of meditation, wearing triple Dharma robes and the meditation hat. You are endowed with the major and minor features.

ཡིད་རྩེ་གཅིག་མོས་པས་བཞུགས་པར་བསྒོམ༎ ཕྱོགས་གཡས་གཡོན་རྩ་བརྒྱུད་བླ་མས་བསྐོར༎

I meditate devotionally, without distraction. You are surrounded right and left by all the gurus of the lineage.

བདག་མོས་གུས་གདུང་བས་གསོལ་འདེབས་ན༎ རྗེ་ཁྱེད་ཀྱི་ཐུགས་རྗེའི་སྤྱན་གྱིས་གཟིགས༎

Now, when I pray to you with respect and devotion, please look with your eye of compassion.

གནས་རིགས་དྲུག་འཁོར་བའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ་འདི༎ ཡིད་རྩེ་གཅིག་གཡེང་མེད་དྲན་པར་ཤོག།

Think of us beings in the six realms of suffering one-pointedly, without distraction!

སེམས་བསྐྱེད་རྫོགས་ཟུང་འཇུག་གི་གདམས་པ་འདིས༎ སེམས་ཆོས་སྐུར་རྟོགས་པར་བྱིན་གྱིས་རློབས༎

This is the instruction that in my mind the generation stage is united with the completion. May thereby my mind be blessed in the realization of the Dharmakāya!

མ་མཁའ་ཁྱབ་སེམས་ཅན་མ་ལུས་པ༎ རྗེ་སྐྱོབ་པའི་ཐུགས་དང་དབྱེར་མེད་ཤོག།

May all beings who were once my mother now be one with the mind of this Protector!

ཨོཾ་རཏྣ་ཤྲཱི་ཧཱུཾ།

Oṃ Ratna Shrī Hūng.

མཐར་ནི་བླ་མ་འོད་དུ་ཞུ༎ རང་གིས་སེམས་དང་བླ་མའི་ཐུགས༎

Finally, the Guru melts and dissolves into light. My mind is united with mind of the guru,

དབྱེར་མེད་ཆུ་ལ་ཆུ་བཞག་བཞིན༎ འཛིན་མེད་ཕྱག་རྒྱ་ཆེན་པོར་སྐྱོང་།

like water mixes with water. I maintain this Mahāmudrā mind without maintaining!

ཞེས་པ་འདིའང་ལྷོ་རྗེ་དྲུང་བས་སྦྱར་བའོ༎

(This was written by Lho Jedrung [Nüden Dorje].)
Translated on June 14th, 2020, the 803rd Mahaparinirvana, by Jan-Ulrich Sobisch in Hamburg.

Samadhi empowerments that precede practices like that of Cakrasamvara are well-known. The name “samadhi empowerment” seems to suggest either that one’e ability to practice samadhi is empowered by this practice, or that these empowerments—instead of being bestowed by a teacher who is actually present—occur “only” within the space of one’s samadhi. Many benefits are mentioned in the texts, the most extraordinary one would be that in the best case the blessing from this samadhi is indistinguishable from an actual fourfold empowerment. Other benefits are that breaches of the pledges and corruptions of vows are healed and one’s virtuous practice increases. An important aspect of samadhi empowerment also seems to be that it enhances the perception of the guru as the Buddha.

In the “profound dharma” section of Jigten Sumgön’s teachings (zab chos), I found a brief text with instructions:♦ 1

Instructions on the samādhi empowerment

Again, the precious guru said: This samadhi empowerment is very profound! Take your yogic position on a comfortable seat, cultivate the resolve, and vividly visualize your body as the cherished deity. Imagine in that way that your principle guru dwells on a four-layered seat in the space in front of the area of the spot between the eyebrows of [the deity you] visualize. The form of his body is that of the exalted great Vajradhara. He and Vajrayogini are inseparable and enter into the union.♦ 2 They are endowed with the ornaments and garb such as the six bone ornaments. In brief, visualize vividly the guru as the body of Heruka. Then, offer once the seven limbs such as the outer, inner, secret, and true reality offerings.

After that, you supplicate three times: “Guru Mahavajradhara, grant me the empowerment!” White rays of light come forth and dissolve into the spot between your eyebrows. Imagine that thereby all veils of the body are cleared. You have received the vase empowerment. You are the essence of the body of all buddhas. Your body has the leisure of a deity. Overjoyed, think: “I have realized that.”♦ 3 Again, the guru and the consort enter into the union. From the spot between their eyebrows, bright and redish-white rays of light come forth and dissolve into your throat. Thereby the veils of speech are cleared and you have received the secret empowerment. You are the essence of the speech of all buddhas and your speech has the nature of mantra—audible and empty. Overjoyed, think: “I have realized that.”

Blue rays of light come forth from the hearts of the guru and his consort. They dissolve into your heart. Thereby the veils of the mind are cleared and you have revceived the empowerment of discriminating knowledge and primordial wisdom. You are the nature of the mind of all buddhas, the nature of mind, unarisen from the beginning, free from arising, abiding, and ceasing. Overjoyed, think: “I have realized that.”

Then, the guru Heruka with the consort turn into many-colored rays of light that dissolve into your body through the crown of your head. Thereby the impurity of holding body, speech, and mind as something different is purified. You have received the precious forth empowerment of the word. You are the essence of the primordial wisdom of the nonduality of the body, speech, and mind of all the buddhas of the three times—spontaneous sameness. Overjoyed, think: “I have realized that.”

Then, remain within that state equanimously in mahamudra. Afterwards, within that, you have to dedicate the root of virtue.

Practicing like that this samadhi empowerment as much as you can, up to 108 times a day, if the samadhi is luminous, the attainment of the [actual] four empowerments and the blessing [of this samadhi empowerment] are indistinguishable. Breaches of the pledges are automatically cleared, all corruptions are repaired, one is well, and the virtuous practice increases. Therefore, please keep this in mind and practice it!
<<end of translation – the Tibetan text is documented below the notes>>

These instructions are in the tradition of Ga Lotsawa, who is also in the transmission lineage of the Cakrasamvara empowerment that Jigten Sumgön transmitted. Ga’s method is preserved in the works of Gyalwa Yanggönpa (1213‒1258).♦ 4 Here the guru is in the form of Sahaja Cakrasamvara with Vajravarahi. The visualization of the seat and the guru is much more detailed. They are surrounded by numerous tantric deities of the father and mother tantras and of the Nyingma tantras. The offerings are also much more detailed. Before the actual empowerment, one sends out rays of light that fall upon the numerous mandalas visualized in the space. The white drop of bliss of all the male deities of these mandalas melts and dissolves into the guru as Cakrasamvara. The rays of light also fall upon the consorts of these mandalas and their red drops of bliss melt and dissolve into the guru and his consort. The essence of all mandalas is now present as this Cakrasamvara with consort.

There are not only one, but two rounds of empowerments. With the first round, one is purified through the light rays coming from the guru and the consort. With the second round, one’s body is gradually filled with nectar via the spot between the eyebrows, etc. Through that nectar one receives the actual empowerment. Finally, the guru and consort melt and dissolve into oneself and one is inseparable from the body, speech, and mind of the guru.

Through this empowerment, the text says, all transgressions and loss of pledges are healed and all veils, obstructions, and unfortunate conditions are removed. A good samadhi will arise. Even if one dwells at the dangerous places of non-humans, one cannot be harmed. All the qualities of mantra arise and increase. This practice is praised a lot in the Buddhakapala Tantra. The glorious Ga Lotsawa practiced it every night. The precios Nyö (gNyos rGyal ba lha nang pa, 1164‒1224) never broke his habbit of practicing it seven times a day. Lama Zhang (Zhang g.yu brag pa, 1123‒1193) practiced it three times at night. The disciple of Yanggönpa, who recorded this teaching, says: “I practice it every time I go to sleep and every morning. Since this is extremely important, please practice it without interruption!”

The samadhi empowerment that one finds in the works of Phagmodrupa♦ 5 is connected to the tradition of the Guhyasamaja Tantra. His teacher—here probably Sachen Künga Nyingpo—told him that it is important for great meditators (sgom chen) to have the samadhi empowerment. He tells the story of the famous translator Gö Lotsawa (‘Gos Khug-pa Lhas-btsas, 11th c.), who went to India to become a translator. He had 108 teachers, and two of them were his root gurus.  One was known for his supernatural perception and the other was very venerable. Under them, Gö Lotsawa became very learned, in particular in the Guhyasamaja Tantra. Once, he thought that there is no one as learned in the Guhyasamaja as he was. A yogi apeared, who said: “You still don’t know the meaning of the Guhyasamaja.” Gö asked him, where he could learn more. The Yogi told him to go to Nagseb and study with a very venerable teacher there. Gö went there and found in a grass hut a woman who had the color of a dove with a very beautiful body and countenance. “Who are you?” he asked. “I am the venerable lady.” He offered her a mandala with some gold and requested Guhyasamaja instructions from her. However, she said that he had a problem with previous pledges and that he, therefore, did not understand the Guhyasamaja. She said: “If you practice this samadhi empowerment, you will primordially understand the Guhyasamaja.” She gave him a brief samadhi empowerment.

The visualization is very similar to that of Jigten Sumgön’s instructions. The text mentions that Gö Lotsawa practiced the samadhi empowerment for a month. He thereby mastered the meaning of the Guhyasamaja Tantra. But the text states also that “it is very important that the nature of the guru is unchangeable [in your mind]. You will not find a guru superior to him.”

At the end, it is mentioned that Gö “bestowed it on lama Sakyapa and he bestowed it on me.” The Sakyapa lama mentioned here should be Khön Könchog Gyalpo (1034-1102), the founding father of the Sakya tradition, who was known to have been a disciple of Gö Lotsawa. But it is impossible that Khön bestowed it directly on Phagmodrupa, as the latter was only just born when Khön died. As mentioned above, it is more likely that he received it from Khön’s son, Sachen Künga Nyingpo, with whom Phagmodrupa had studied intensively before he met Gampopa.

I think that it is noteworthy in all of these texts that they deal with the way of seing the guru. In Ga Lotsawa’s text, the guru receives the white and red drops of bliss of the deities of all mandalas, and he is then understood to be the essence of entirely all mandalas. In Gö’s text, it is very important to think “that the nature of the guru is unchangeable. You will not find a guru superior to him.” His female guru, who told him to practice the samadhi empowerment, had also told him that his problem with understanding the Guhyasamaja teachings was a breach of the pledges. Could it be that this breach had been that he did not see his guru as the Buddha?

In an instruction for those of highest capacity concerning the practices of luminosity and the transference of the consciousness,♦ 6 Jigten Sumgön talks about the practice of the samadhi empowerment when he says:

“Put your mind one-pointedly and without distraction on the guru being the Buddha. As long as that has not become clear, practice with much effort! When it has become clear, the dependent origination of the guru’s blessing and one’s devotion come together and thereby it is impossible that it is not clear. The mahamudra with which one has familiarized earlier becomes sevenfold and arises automatically. Like water ist poured into water and butter into butter, one proceeds in a state of mahamudra, and the primordial wisdom that is nondual with the guru’s mind and one’s own consciousness mix inseparably in mahamudra.”

Notes
1. []Khams gsum chos kyi rgyal po thub dbang ratna shrI’i nang gi zab chos no bu’i phreng ba, Dehra Dun: International Drikung Kagyu Council, 1217, vol. 6, no. 763.

2. []This is most probably intentionally ambiguous. The Tibeta term snyoms par ʼjug means both to enter into a mental equilibrium, which is a “union,” and to join in sexual union.

3. []This reminds us of an important aspect of meditative visualization, namely that one should not only visualize the forms and activities of the deities, but also be convinced that a result is produced thereby.

4. []’Bri gung chos mdzod chen mo, TBRC W00JW501203, vol. 48, pp. 321‒327.

5. []gSung ‘bum, TBRC W23891, vol. 7, pp. 676‒682.

6. []’Bri gung chos mdzod chen mo, vol. 10, no. 814.

Tibetan text of Jigten Sumgön’s instructions on the samadhi empowerment

༄།།ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན་གྱི་དབང་བསྐུར་གྱི་གདམས་པ༎ ཡང་བླ་མ་རིན་པོ་

ཆེའི་ཞལ་ནས། ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན་གྱི་དབང་བསྐུར་འདི་ཤིན་ཏུ་ཟབ་པ་ཡིན།

དེ་ཡང་སྟན་བདེ་བའི་སྟེང་དུ་འཁྲུལ་འཁོར་ལེགས་པར་བཅའ། སེམས་

བསྐྱེད་ལུས་ཡི་དམ་གྱི་ལྷར་ཝལ་གྱིས་བསྒོམ། དེ་ལྟར་སྒོམ་པའི་སྨིན་མཚམས་

ཀྱི་ཐད་སོའི་མདུན་གྱི་ནམ་མཁའ་ལ་གདན་བཞི་བརྩེགས་ཀྱི་སྟེང་དུ། རང་

གི་རྩ་བའི་བླ་མ་བཞུགས་པར་བསམ། སྐུའི་རྣམ་པ་ནི་བཅོམ་ལྡན་འདས་རྡོ་

རྗེ་འཆང་ཆེན་པོ། ཡུམ་རྡོ་རྗེ་རྣལ་འབྱོར་མ་དང་གཉིས་སུ་མེད་ཅིང་སྙོམས་

པར་ཞུགས་པ། རུས་པའི་རྒྱན་དྲུག་ལ་སོགས་པའི་རྒྱན་ཆ་ལུགས་དང་ལྡན་པ།

མདོར་ན་བླ་མ་ཧེ་རུ་ཀའི་སྐུར་ཝལ་གྱིས་བསྒོམ། དེ་ནས་ཕྱི་ནང་གསང་གསུམ་

དེ་ཁོ་ན་ཉིད་ཀྱི་མཆོད་པ་ལ་སོགས་པ་ཡན་ལག་བདུན་པ་ཚར་གཅིག་དབུལ།

དེའི་རྗེས་ལ་བླ་མ་རྡོ་རྗེ་འཛིན་པ་ཆེན་པོས། བདག་ལ་དབང་བསྐུར་བར་མཛད་

དུ་གསོལ། ཞེས་གསོལ་བ་ལན་གསུམ་གདབ། དེ་ནས་བླ་མ་ཡབ་ཡུམ་གྱི་སྨིན་

མཚམས་ནས། འོད་ཟེར་དཀར་པོ་བྱོན་ནས་རང་ཉིད་ཀྱི་སྨིན་མཚམས་སུ་ཐིམ་

པས་ལུས་ཀྱི་སྒྲིབ་པ་ཐམས་ཅད་སངས་ཀྱིས་དག་པར་བསམ། བུམ་པའི་དབང་

ཐོབ། བདག་ཉིད་སངས་རྒྱས་ཐམས་ཅད་ཀྱི་སྐུའི་ངོ་བོ། ལུས་ལྷའི་དལ་ཡིན་པ་

ལ། དེ་ལྟར་རྟོགས་པ་རེ་དགའ་སྙམ་དུ་བསམ། ཡང་བླ་མ་ཡབ་ཡུམ་སྙོམས་པར་

ཞུགས། སྦྱོར་མཚམས་ནས་འོད་ཟེར་དཀར་ལ་དམར་བའི་མདངས་ཆགས་པའི་

རྣམ་པར་བྱོན་ནས་རང་ཉིད་ཀྱི་མགྲིན་པར་ཐིམ་པས། ངག་གི་སྒྲིབ་པ་དག་

གསང་བའི་དབང་ཐོབ། བདག་ཉིད་སངས་རྒྱས་ཐམས་ཅད་ཀྱི་གསུང་གི་ངོ་བོ་

ངག་གྲགས་སྟོང་སྔགས་ཀྱི་རང་བཞིན་ཡིན་པ་ལ། དེ་ལྟར་རྟོགས་པ་དེ་རེ་

དགའ་སྙམ་དུ་བསམ། བླ་མ་ཡབ་ཡུམ་གྱི་ཐུགས་ཀ་ནས་འོད་ཟེར་སྔོན་པོ་བྱོན་

ནས་རང་ཉིད་ཀྱི་སྙིང་གར་ཐིམ་པས། ཡིད་ཀྱི་སྒྲིབ་པ་དག་ཤེས་རབ་ཡེ་ཤེས་ཀྱི་

དབང་ཐོབ། བདག་ཉིད་སངས་རྒྱས་ཐམས་ཅད་ཀྱི་ཐུགས་ཀྱི་རང་བཞིན་སེམས་

ཉིད་གདོད་མ་ནས་མ་སྐྱེས་པ། སྐྱེ་འགག་གནས་གསུམ་དང་བྲལ་བ་ཡིན་པ་ལ།

དེ་ལྟར་རྟོགས་པ་རེ་དགའ་སྙམ་དུ་བསམ། དེ་ནས་བླ་མ་ཧེ་རུ་ཀ་ཡབ་ཡུམ་འོད་

ཟེར་ཁ་དོག་སྣ་ཚོགས་སུ་གྱུར་ནས། རང་ཉིད་ཀྱི་སྤྱི་བོ་ནས་ལུས་ལ་ཐིམ་པས། ལུས་

ངག་ཡིད་གསུམ་ཐ་དད་དུ་འཛིན་པའི་དྲི་མ་དག་བཞི་པ་ཚིག་དབང་རིན་པོ་ཆེ་

ཐོབ། བདག་ཉིད་དུས་གསུམ་གྱི་སངས་རྒྱས་ཐམས་ཅད་ཀྱི་སྐུ་གསུང་ཐུགས་གཉིས་

སུ་མེད་པའི་ཡེ་ཤེས་ཀྱི་ངོ་བོ་མཉམ་པ་ཉིད་ལྷུན་གྱིས་གྲུབ་པ་ཡིན་པ་ལ། དེ་ལྟར་

རྟོགས་པ་རེ་དགའ་སྙམ་དུ་བསམ། དེ་ནས་དེ་ཉིད་ཀྱི་ངང་དུ་ཕྱག་རྒྱ་ཆེན་པོ་ལྷན་

གྱིས་མཉམ་པར་བཞག་རྗེས་དེར་དགེ་བའི་རྩ་བ་བསྔོ་བ་བྱ། དེ་ལྟར་ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན་

གྱི་དབང་བསྐུར་འདི་ཉིན་ཞག་རེ་ལ་བརྒྱ་རྩ་བརྒྱད་མན་ཆད་ཅི་ནུས་རེ་ཉམས་སུ་

བླངས་ན། ཏིང་ངེ་འཛིན་གསལ་ན་དབང་བཞི་ཐོབ་པ་དང་བྱིན་རླབས་ཁྱད་མེད།

དམ་ཚིག་གི་འགལ་འཁྲུལ་ཆགས་ཉམས་ཐམས་ཅད་སོར་ཆུད་ནས། ཁམས་བཟང་

ཞིང་དགེ་སྦྱོར་འཕེལ་བ་ལགས་པས། དེ་ལྟར་ཐུགས་ལ་བཞག་ནས་ཉམས་སུ་ལེན་

པར་ཞུ་གསུངས༎ ༎